Thematic electronic scientific online journal NCFSCHVW

Fruit growing
and viticulture of South Russia



Marmorshtein Anna Aleksandrovna


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Articles in journal: (total 29)

pdf
496 Кб
12 с.
Genetic Resources, Cultivar, selection
Date posted: 02.06.2023
UDC: 634.8: 551.58
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2023-3-81-216-227
Keywords: NORMALIZATION OF BUSHES, FRUITFULNESS COEFFICIENT, YIELD CAPACITY, BUNCH WEIGHT, SHOOT PRODUCTIVITY

Annotation

The article considers the issue of the impact of the load of table grape bushes with shoots and bunches on plant productivity. The place of research is the fourth subzone of the Central Agroecological Zone of viticulture of the Krasnodar region, characterized by a moderate continental climate and lowhumus, leached powerful chernozems as soils. As an object of research after exploratory studies in 2021, among different table grape varieties (Gurman Kraynova, Dubovskiy rozovyi, Kishmish Dubovskiy and Centennial Seedless), the Centennial Seedless variety was selected as promising for studying the load of bushes with shoots and bunches according to the parameters of the proportion of fruiting shoots (93 %), the bunch weight (0.73 kg) and the productivity of the shoot (0.73 kg per shoot). According to the indicator complex in the first year of research after the experimental field trial, the following variants of bush loading with shoots and bunches were distinguished: the control first variant (35 shoots and 27 bunches per bush after breaking-off shoots) by the proportion of dead buds (16.7 %) and fruiting shoots (72.5 %), the number of inflorescences (30 pcs.), the fruitfulness coefficient k1 (0.75), yield capacity (26.7 t/ha) and shoot productivity (0.59 kg per shoot); the fourth variant (23 shoots and 21 bunches) according to the fruitfulness coefficient k1 (0.81) and the productivity of the shoot (0.7 kg per shoot), the fifth variant (23 shoots and 15 bunches) according to the fruitfulness coefficient k2 (1.45), the bunch weight (0.91 kg), the loss from the bush (0.33 kg) and the productivity of the shoot (0.56 kg per shoot), the seventh variant (17 shoots and 15 bunches) according to the proportion of dead buds (16 %), fruitfulness coefficients k1 (0.81) and k2 (1.55); the ninth variant (13 shoots and 8 bunches) according to the proportion of fruiting shoots (61.5 %), fruitfulness coefficient k1 (0.77) and shoot productivity (0.55 kg per shoot).

How to cite
Marmorshtein A., Zhiku D., Petrov V., Fisyura A. AGROBIOLOGICAL REACTION OF CENTENNIAL SEEDLESS VARIETY TO LOAD OF BUSHES BY SHOOTS AND BUNCHES [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2023. № 81(3). pp. 216–227. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/23/03/14.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2023-3-81-216-227 (request date: 07.06.2023).
pdf
538 Кб
14 с.
Genetic Resources, Cultivar, selection
Date posted: 15.05.2020
UDC: 634.8 : 631.52
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2020-3-63-60-73
Keywords: GRAPES, INTRODUCTION, VARIETY, VEGETATION, STRESS FACTORS, ADAPTATION

Annotation

Studies of the introduced German technical Monarch grape variety were carried out in the Black Sea agro-ecological zone of viticulture in the Krasnodar Territory. In unstable weather conditions, the duration of the growing season from blooming buds to the full physiological maturity of grape berries was 135 days in 2018, and in 2019 was 125 days. The variety showed the signs of an adaptive response to changing weather conditions. With an acute deficit of precipitation and a slow increase in air temperature in 2018, the duration of the second phase of the vegetation from the beginning of bud blooming to the beginning of flowering was 11 days longer. The significant difference in the duration of the second and third phases of vegetation is explained by the adaptive reaction of the introduced variety to lower air temperature in late May and early June in 2018. The difference in average daily air temperature during the period of active shoot growth and at the beginning of flowering reached 4.6 ºC, the amount of precipitation was 4.3 times less, that promoted the accelerated ripening of grapes in 2018. The maximum air temperature on average during the ripening period of grape berries was equal to 33 º in 2018, and 31 º in 2019. The amount of precipitation was 3.3 times less than normal. The high adaptive reaction of the technical Monarch grape variety is of great practical importance for use in scientific purposes and in industrial production when creating the stable ampelocenoses in unstable weather conditions of Southern Russia.

How to cite
Larkina M., Dergachev D., Petrov V., Pankin M., Marmorshtein A. PHENOLOGICAL CYCLES OF THE TECHNICAL MONARCH VARIETY UNDER UNSTABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS OF THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2020. № 63(3). pp. 60–73. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/20/03/05.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2020-3-63-60-73 (request date: 07.06.2023).
pdf
520 Кб
12 с.
Genetic Resources, Cultivar, selection
Date posted: 15.05.2020
UDC: 634.8 : 631.52
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2020-3-63-74-85
Keywords: GRAPES, VARIETY, VEGETATION, ADAPTATION

Annotation

Study of phenology of universal grape variety Podarok Dmitria were carried out in the Black Sea agroecological zone of viticulture in the Krasnodar Territory. According to the data of research the variety shows the signs of earlymedium ripening and adaptive response under unstable weather conditions in the temperate continental climate of Southern of Russia. The signs of adaptation of this variety were most manifested during the ripening period of grape berries. The duration of the ripening period of grape berries in atypical weather conditions in 2018 was 17 days, 13 days less than in 2019. The accelerated ripening of grape berries was promoted by high solar insolation and an acute deficit of precipitation. The average daily air temperature in this period in 2018 was 3.5 C higher than in 2019 and 1.8 C higher than the average long-term norm. The amount of precipitation in 2018 was 13.5 times less than in 2019, 7.8 times less than the norm and amounted to 3.7 mm. In 2019, the low air temperature at the beginning of the growing of studied grape variety compared to 2018 contributed to a restrained bud opening, growth of shoots and inflorescences. A sharp warming in late May-early June contributed to an earlier start of plant flowering. The low temperature in the second half of the growing season compared to 2018 and the average longterm norm slowed down the physiological processes and made longer the periods of growth of grape berries.

How to cite
Dergachev D., Larkina M., Petrov V., Pankin M., Marmorshtein A. PHENOLOGY OF NEW GRAPE VARIETY OF PODAROK DMITRIA IN UNSTABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS OF SOUTH OF RUSSIA [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2020. № 63(3). pp. 74–85. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/20/03/06.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2020-3-63-74-85 (request date: 07.06.2023).
pdf
281 Кб
10 с.
Genetic Resources, Cultivar, selection
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 634.8 : 631.52
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-63-72
Keywords: GRAPES, ENVIRONMENTAL, PHENOTYPE, MODIFICATIONAL VARIABILITY, THE REACTION NORM

Annotation

The reaction norm of the introduced wine grape variety Merlot in unstable conditions of the moderately continental climate of the south of Russia has been established. The research was carried out in the agroecological conditions of the Black Sea viticulture zone of the Krasnodar region in the industrial vineyards of the GC Abrau-Durso using modern methods of field research. Agrobiological accountings were carried out using the methods of agrotechnical study of grapes. The climate at the research areais moderate continental. The average annual air temperature is 14.1 ºC, during the growing season (May September) is 22.2 ºC, the maximum rises to plus 37.0 ºC, the minimum during the wintering period of grapes falls to minus 19 ºC. The annual amount of atmospheric precipitation is 544 mm, during the growing season 208 mm, during the active growth of grape berries (II. June-III. august) 96 mm. The grape plant reacts with the modification variability of phenotypic traits to the variation of environmental conditions. The lower limit of the modification variability of the cluster mass is 98 g and the upper limit is 121 g., the grape yield is 3.3 kg/bush and 6.8 kg/bush, the sugar content of the grape berries juice is 20.1 g/100 cm3 and 21.6 g/100 cm3 . The reaction norm is 23 g, 3.5 kg/bush and 1.5 g/100 cm3 , respectively. Against the background of the application of fertilizers, the lower and upper limits of the modification variability increased respectively: the cluster mass by 16 % and 9 %, the grape yield by 48 % and 16 %, the sugar content of the grape juice of by 10 % and 7 %. The reaction norm decreased: reduction for the cluster mass as phenotypic trait was 22 %, for the grape yield 14 %, and for the sugar content of the berry juice 67 %.

How to cite
Petrov V., Russo D., Krasilnikov A., Marmorshtein A. THE REACTION RATE OF MERLOT GRAPES IN UNSTABLE CONDITIONS OF A MODERATELY CONTINENTAL CLIMATE IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 63–72. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/05.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-63-72 (request date: 07.06.2023).
pdf
478 Кб
10 с.
Genetic Resources, Cultivar, selection
Date posted: 16.03.2021
UDC: 634.8:631.52
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-2-68-18-27
Keywords: GRAPES; VARIETY, EMBRYONIC FRUITFULNESS, PRUINING LENGTH

Annotation

The most important technique of agricultural technology to increase the productivity and quality of grapes is pruning of bushes, the length of which depends on the most productive zone of shoots. To determine the zone of the greatest production of the shoot, the embryonic fruitfulness of the buds is estimated, depending on the biological characteristics of the grape varieties and agroecological factors of the location, both natural (weather and climatic, soil and spatial conditions) and anthropogenic (management system, pruning, fertilizer use, etc.). In 2018, we studied the special aspects of inflorescences formation and differentiation of new table grapes hybrid forms of E.S. Gusev breeding (Volgograd) under the arid and hot conditions of the Volgograd. Territory in this work research results are presented of the embryonic fruitfulness of the new table grapes hybrid forms of Ispolin, Courage, Hamlet, Valencia, Artek, Timothy in the Krasnodar Region. The study of embryonic fruitfulness was carried out in the vineyards growing in the agroecological conditions of the Krasnodar Region Central Zone, subzone 4. Selection of the studied shoots and assessment of the embryonic fruitfulness of buds under winter were carried out during the period of deep physiological rest of plants by microscopy (Micromed MS1) in the laboratory of NCFSCHVW. The regularity of different laying and differentiation of embryonic inflorescences in the studied grapes hybrid forms, as well as differentiated coefficients of fruitfulness and fruiting along the length of shoots are established. The highest rates of fruiting and fruitfulness were in the grape hybrids of Hamlet, Artek and Timothy under the conditions of temperature stress, the highest embryonic productivity was observed in the zone 6-8 wintering buds.

How to cite
Zhiku D., Marmorshtein A., Petrov V. EMBRYONIC FRUITFULNESS OF NEW HYBRID FORMS OF TABLE GRAPES IN THE AGROECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE KRASNODAR REGION [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 68(2). pp. 18–27. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/02/02.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-2-68-18-27 (request date: 07.06.2023).