Thematic electronic scientific online journal NCFSCHVW

Fruit growing
and viticulture of South Russia



Issue: 72(6)

Date posted: 15.11.21

Total articles: 18

Total authors: 43

DOI of issue: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72

Genetic Resources, Cultivar, selection

pdf
581 Кб
17 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 634.1:631.52
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-1-17
Keywords: APPLE TREE, VARIETY, ELITE FORM, SUSTAINABILITY

Annotation

The studies were carried out in accordance with the generally accepted and developed in the FSBSI NCFSCHVW programs and methods of breeding and variety study. The objects of research are apple varieties and forms (Malus x domestica Borkh.) of different ploidy and genetic origin. The aim of the study is to identify the most valuable genotypes of the genus Malus of various origins and ploidy for the accelerated creation of domestic adaptive varieties. Analysis of the dynamics of the average yield capacity for the apple crop as a whole made it possible to establish that in the years of the strongest effect of the complex of abiostressors on the apple plant, a significant decrease in crop yield was noted. According to the data of long-term studies (2010-2020), a significant decrease in yield in general for the apple crop in 2017 and 2020 was noted (11.69 and 12.48 t/ha), which is caused by the complex influence of early frosts (in December 2016 down to -17.0 ) and freezings (in April 2020 up to 2.7 ) and further negative influence as biostressors (the development of epiphytoties of scab, powdery mildew and other fungal pathogens during the growing season), and abiotic stress factors of summer the autumn period - combination of abnormally high temperature stresses, instability of the moisture regime, uneven moisture supply to the plant and often a serious and long-term deficit in precipitation. According to the obtained data, varieties with specific and complex interspecific parental forms, varieties of folk and local breeding, as well as new varieties of regional breeding obtained on their basis, showed a number of protective and adaptive reactions to the complex effects of abioand biotic stressors. The most promising varieties with increased adaptability to the complex of abiostressors of the region, resistant and immune to scab, have been identified: Vesta, Jin, Istok, Exotica, 12/1-21-46, Orfey, Lyubimoye Dutovoy; with increased productivity potential: Jin, Istok, Exotic, 12/1-21-46; large-fruited: 12/1-21-79, Jin, Istok, Exotic, 12/1-21-24

How to cite
Ulyanovskaya E., Belenko E. GENETIC RESOURCES OF THE GENUS MALUS FOR THE CREATION OF MODERN ADAPTIVE APPLE VARIETIES [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 1–17. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/01.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-1-17 (request date: 28.01.2022).
pdf
225 Кб
14 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 634.852(470.61)
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-18-31
Keywords: GRAPE, NATIVE VARIETY, AMPELOGRAPHIC COLLECTION, YIELD CAPACITY, UVOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC

Annotation

The research was carried out in 2015-2020 at the Don ampelographic collection named after Ya.I. Potapenko (Novocherkassk, Rostov region). The object of the research was a native Don grape variety Kosorotovskiy. The Pukhlyakovskiy variety was the control. According to morphological characteristics and biological properties, Kosorotovskiy belongs to the varieties of the Black Sea basin. The study of grape varieties was carried out using methods generally accepted in viticulture and National Standards. The varieties were studied in a covered and grafted culture on the Kober 5BB rootstock. The planting scheme of bushes was 3.0 x 1.5 m. According to the average data of agrobiological records and observations, the Kosorotovskiy variety had 59.6 % of blossoming buds, 48.5 % of fruiting shoots, the fruitfullness coefficient was 0.7, the average mass of a bunch was 297 g, yield capacity 5.2 kg/bush. According to the mechanical analysis of the bunch, the percentage content to the bunch weight was following: juice 77.7 %; stems 3.3 %; pomace 15.0 %; seeds 4.0 %. According to the results of uvological assessment: the size of a bunch is 16.8 cm long, 9.7 cm wide, the size of the berry is18.4 mm long, 16.3 mm wide, the average weight of a berry 3.3 g, the sugar content of the berry juice 20.2 g/100 cm3 with a titratable acidity of 7.5 g/dm3 . The Kosorotovskiy variety is technologically advanced, quickly clarified, does not require additional processing techniques. The wine is transparent, shiny, straw-colored with a greenish tint. The aroma is clean, well-formed, with light floral and fruity tones. The taste is full and harmonious. The average wine tasting score was 8.6 points (at the level of the control variety Pukhlyakovskiy). According to the results of the study of agrobiological, technological, ecological and economically valuable properties, the Kosorotovskiy variety is not inferior to the control variety Pukhlyakovskiy and can be recommended for inclusion in the assortment of grape plantations of the Lower Don region. It is also recommended to use this variety in breeding for the genetic improvement of white technical grape varieties as a source of valuable economic, biological and technological properties for high-quality winemaking.

How to cite
Ganich V., Naumova L. PERSPECTIVE NATIVE GRAPE VARIETY KOSOROTOVSKIY UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF LOWER DON REGION [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 18–31. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/02.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-18-31 (request date: 28.01.2022).
pdf
211 Кб
18 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 634.8.03
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-32-49
Keywords: GRAPES, VITICULTURE, WINEMAKING, TECHNICAL VARIETIES, QUALITY, BUNCHES, FRUITING SHOOTS, BUDS

Annotation

Promising grape varieties used for processing in the conditions of the Lower Don were studied, and agrobiological and economic and technical assessment was given. The following issues were studied in the work: winter buds injuries, the degree of resistance of grape varieties to vine diseases, indicators of fruitfulness of shoots, the strength of growth, the degree of ripening of shoots, and the quality of the crop. The study of promising grape varieties for the Rostov region, used for processing, is an important area of research, since the berries of these grape varieties have high technological qualities and are a valuable raw material for winemaking. In this regard, for the highly efficient use of the genetic properties of grape varieties, the fullest involvement in the production process of the resource, edaphoclimatic potential of cultivation areas, ensuring stable fruiting, high yield and quality of grapes for fresh consumption and industrial processing, it is important to make the right selection and optimize the placement of the variety for the Rostov region. The natural edaphoclimatic potential of the Rostov region allows growing grapes in a fairly wide range of both traditional and new grape varieties with high quality indicators. The biological features of cultivated grape varieties have a great influence on the main processes of life of grape plants. At the same time, their influence is manifested in a change in the activity of physiological processes and largely depends on both the natural and climatic conditions of the area of their cultivation, as well as on the used agricultural practices. In this regard, conducting research aimed at agrobiological assessment of grape varieties is an important area of research, since the successful solution of these issues will increase the efficiency of the industry.

How to cite
Gabibova E. STUDY AND EVALUATION OF PROSPECTIVE TECHNICAL VARIETIES OF GRAPES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE LOWER DON [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 32–49. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/03.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-32-49 (request date: 28.01.2022).
pdf
1955 Кб
13 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 634.86
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-50-62
Keywords: VARIETY, GRAPES, BUNCH, BERRY, UVOLOGY, PARTHENOCARPY, POLLINATOR, INDICATOR

Annotation

The article presents the results of studies on the effect of pollinating varieties on bunch density and uvological indicators of Crimean autochthonous grape variety Kefesiya. The work was carried out in the Morskoye branch of AO PKSC Massandra in 2019-2020. Planting year 2002, planting scheme 3×2 (2), varieties were planted according to the scheme 2 rows of Kefesiya alternated with 1 row of pollinating variety (Muscat Rose, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Gevat Kara) in squares 1, 2, 3 of 1,31 hectares in area. The total number of Kefesiya bushes is 770 pcs. The studies of Kefesiya grape uvological indicators in terms of pollinating variety show that larger bunches (512.0-606.6 g) grow on bushes pollinated with Muscat Rose, number of set seeds is larger (542.0-631.4 pcs.), exceeding same indicators in other pollinating variants in the process of cultivating the Kefesiya variety. The parthenocarpic berries were registered in bunches of all studied combinations of Kefesiya cultivation. At the same time, the proportion of normally set berries accounts for 89.85-93.55%, depending on the combination: leading variety pollinating variety. However, the Kefesiya grape bunches in combination with Muscat Rose as a pollinator give the amount of normally developed berries by 3.7-2.35 % higher than that in Kefesiya bunches (pollinating variety Cabernet- Sauvignon) and Kefesiya bunches (pollinating variety Gevat Kara). Pollinating varieties Muscat Rose, Cabernet-Sauvignon and Gevat Kara, alternating with leading Kefesiya variety in the production plot, have an impact on such indicators as: bunch length and width, average bunch weight, number of berries per bunch, number of seeds per bunch, weight of 100 berries, percentage value of juice and pulp in the total bunch weight.

How to cite
Studennikova N., Kotolovets Z. THE EFFECT OF POLLINATING VARIETIES ON UVOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF BUNCHES OF KEFESIYA GRAPE VARIETY [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 50–62. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/04.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-50-62 (request date: 28.01.2022).
pdf
281 Кб
10 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 634.8 : 631.52
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-63-72
Keywords: GRAPES, ENVIRONMENTAL, PHENOTYPE, MODIFICATIONAL VARIABILITY, THE REACTION NORM

Annotation

The reaction norm of the introduced wine grape variety Merlot in unstable conditions of the moderately continental climate of the south of Russia has been established. The research was carried out in the agroecological conditions of the Black Sea viticulture zone of the Krasnodar region in the industrial vineyards of the GC Abrau-Durso using modern methods of field research. Agrobiological accountings were carried out using the methods of agrotechnical study of grapes. The climate at the research areais moderate continental. The average annual air temperature is 14.1 ºC, during the growing season (May September) is 22.2 ºC, the maximum rises to plus 37.0 ºC, the minimum during the wintering period of grapes falls to minus 19 ºC. The annual amount of atmospheric precipitation is 544 mm, during the growing season 208 mm, during the active growth of grape berries (II. June-III. august) 96 mm. The grape plant reacts with the modification variability of phenotypic traits to the variation of environmental conditions. The lower limit of the modification variability of the cluster mass is 98 g and the upper limit is 121 g., the grape yield is 3.3 kg/bush and 6.8 kg/bush, the sugar content of the grape berries juice is 20.1 g/100 cm3 and 21.6 g/100 cm3 . The reaction norm is 23 g, 3.5 kg/bush and 1.5 g/100 cm3 , respectively. Against the background of the application of fertilizers, the lower and upper limits of the modification variability increased respectively: the cluster mass by 16 % and 9 %, the grape yield by 48 % and 16 %, the sugar content of the grape juice of by 10 % and 7 %. The reaction norm decreased: reduction for the cluster mass as phenotypic trait was 22 %, for the grape yield 14 %, and for the sugar content of the berry juice 67 %.

How to cite
Petrov V., Russo D., Krasilnikov A., Marmorshtein A. THE REACTION RATE OF MERLOT GRAPES IN UNSTABLE CONDITIONS OF A MODERATELY CONTINENTAL CLIMATE IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 63–72. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/05.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-63-72 (request date: 28.01.2022).

Breeding and production of planting material

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373 Кб
16 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 634.13:631.535.4:631.811.98
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-73-88
Keywords: PEAR, GROWTH STIMULANTS, ROOTSTOCKS, VARIETIES, SURVIVAL RATE, GREENHOUSE

Annotation

The propagation technology for pear varieties and forms by herbaceous cuttings under circumstances of fog forming installations was successfully developed with the use of such growth Regulators as β-indolyl-3-acetic acid, β-indolyl-3-butyric acid, α-naphthylacetic acid. According to the results of the analysis of the degree of rooting of herbaceous cuttings of varieties Pamati Yakovleva (control), Avgustovskaya rosa, Osennyaya Yakovleva and rootock forms K-1; K-2; 4-26; 4-39, the varieties Pamati Yakovleva (control), Avgustovskaya rosa, Osennyaya Yakovleva and rootock form 4-39 were considered, which are able to take root with use of growth stimulator IBA (55.0 to 65.0 %) and also having the highest accretions (12.0 to 13.5 cm), the largest diameter of conditional root neck of 1.5 mm, the largest root number and their length (6.0 to 7.0 cm) and (from 9.0 to 9.5 cm). After IAA treatment, the best height of plants (11.0 to 11.5 cm), diameter of conditional root neck of 1.0, root number 6.0 pcs., root length (8.0 to 8.5 cm) were found in varieties Pamyti Yakovleva (control), Avgustovskaya rosa, Osennyaya Yakovleva. NAA promoted the best results in accretions height (10.0 to 10.8 cm), diameter of conditional root neck of 1.0 mm, root number (5.0 to 6.0 pcs), root length (7.0 to 7.5 cm) for varieties Pamyati Yakovleva (control), Avgustovskaya rosa, Osennayay Yakovleva. As a result of the conducted researches, it was found that the best results in rooting of herbaceous cuttings of pear after application of IBA occurred to be in the varieties Avgustovsckaya rosa, Osennya Yakovleva, Pamyati Yakovleva (control) and form 4-39. After IBA application varieties Pamyati Yakovleva (control), Avgustovsckaya rosa, Osennya Yakovleva and form 4-39 showed the best plant height, diameter of conditional root neck, and root number and length. After IAA and NAA treatment the best results of quality of the rootstocks that have been rooted were in the varieties Pamyati Yakovleva (control), Avgustovskaya rosa, Osennaya Yakovleva.

How to cite
Zatsepina I. ABILITY OF PEAR VARIETIES AND FORMS TO TAKE ROOT WITH THE USE OF VARIOUS GROWTH REGULATORS [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 73–88. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/06.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-73-88 (request date: 28.01.2022).
pdf
556 Кб
14 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 634.8:631.535:631.811.98
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-89-102
Keywords: GRAPE SHEARS, ACTIVATION OF REGENERATING CAPACITY OF SHEARS, GROWTH REGULATORS, PREPARATION VL 77, RUNNING CAPACITY, ROOT FORMATION CAPACITY

Annotation

The paper presents the results of a vegetation experiment to study the effect of VL 77 on the regenerative capacity of two-buds cuttings of Moldova variety. The cuttings were soaked for 24 hours in working solutions of the studied preparation at concentrations of 0.005; 0.01; 0.05; 0.1 and 0.5 %. The cuttings of the control variant were soaked in water for the same time, and the cuttings of the standard variant were soaked in a 0.01 % IAA solution. The cuttings were germinated in plastic containers filled with water. The use of VL 77 had a positive effect on growth processes, increasing the length of the shoots by 1.8-5.0 cm or 43.9-122.0 %. A clear pattern of a decrease in the average length of shoots with an increase in the concentration of the drug from 0.005 to 0.5% was revealed. The highest intensity of opening of eyes, and the degree of their opening, as well as the highest total growth, were characteristic of cuttings in the variant with a concentration of the studied drug of 0.005%. Treatment of cuttings with VL 77 led to a significant improvement in virtually all the main indicators of their root-forming ability: rooting rate, length of the pre-root period, yield of cuttings with three roots or more, the number of roots, their total length. The greatest effect was obtained with the use of 0.005 % concentration of VL 77. In this variant, rooting increased by 18.5%, the proportion of cuttings with three roots or more by 32.5 %, the average number of roots of the cuttings by 39.6%, root length 4.1 times. The length of the pre-root period decreased by 4.5 days. Thus, the tested drug VL 77 can be attributed to effective stimulators of the regenerative capacity of grapevine cuttings.

How to cite
Radchevskiy P., Kravets N., Chursin I. INFLUENCE OF PREPARATION VL 77 ON REGENERATING PROPERTIES OF GRAPE CUTTINGS [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 89–102. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/07.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-89-102 (request date: 28.01.2022).
pdf
542 Кб
11 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 631.535.2:[621.373.9:537.8.029]
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-103-113
Keywords: GRAPES, CUTTINGS, HETEROAUXIN, ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD, RESONANT FREQUENCIES, SEEDLINGS

Annotation

The purpose of the research was to develop optimal algorithms for obtaining resonance frequency preparations of heteroauxin to intensify the production of own-rooted grape seedlings. The previously revealed regularities of processing the intermediate carrier by an electromagnetic field in the spectrum of resonant frequencies of biologically active substances during direct removal are confirmed. To clarify the degree of efficiency of the operating modes of the process hardware in relation to the tasks being solved, certified devices have been tested both in independent and in coupled versions of operation. An assessment of the applicability of individual operating modes of the equipment used in obtaining resonance frequency preparations is given. Optimal algorithms for their creation based on the properties of native heteroauxin are revealed. The high efficiency of the coupled use of the IMEDIS-BRT-A devices in the transfer and MINI-EXPERT-DT modes of the 1997-2009 model with the output of the operating frequency spectrum through the emitter connected to it is shown. A number of positive results were obtained during the independent application of the IMEDIS-BRT-A device in the transfer mode with additional modulation of the electromagnetic field of the emitted spectrum according to the golden section principle. The high efficiency of the use of available technical means for the treatment of the intermediate component with an electromagnetic field in the frequency spectrum of the preparation heteroauxin for rooting grape cuttings has been established. A working hypothesis of the obtained results is proposed, which consists in the fact that the treatment of biological objects with resonance frequency preparations made from a native matrix preparation can purposefully stimulate the synthesis of those substances whose spectral analogues they are. At the same time, there is a synergistic effect of the interaction of the frequency analogue with the native starting substance, since in the experiment variant, where the matrix was absent under the same operating modes of the equipment as when working with the matrix-preparation, the effectiveness of the experiment was consistently lower. The expressed hypotheses, in our opinion, have a basis and require further study of the effects obtained in order to consolidate the results obtained and transfer recommendations to production.

How to cite
Olkhovatov E., Radchevskiy P., Chizheumova A. OPTIMIZATION OF ALGORITHMS FOR OBTAINING RESONANCE FREQUENCY HETEROAUXIN PREPARATIONS FOR VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF GRAPES [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 103–113. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/08.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-103-113 (request date: 28.01.2022).

Physiology and biochemistry of plants

pdf
181 Кб
10 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 634.11:631.811:581.1.036
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-114-123
Keywords: APPLE-TREE, NURSERY, MICRO-ORGANISMS GLOMUS SP., DROUGHT RESISTANCE

Annotation

In the Krasnodar region over the past 20 years, during the summer vegetation period of fruit plants, the main abiotic stresses are increased air temperature exceeding the long-term climatic norm by up to 7 degrees, and prolonged droughts, the combination of which negatively affects the growth, development and yield capacity of fruit plants, especially in conditions of insufficient irrigation regime. The greatest manifestation of high-temperature stress is observed in two periods in the first decade of July and the third decade of August. Considering that it is at this time that two most important stages of apple tree development take place simultaneously the differentiation of fruit buds (July) and the ripening of the fruits of the current year's harvest (August), the resistance of fruit plants to high-temperature stresses is a necessary condition for the normal course of their production process. The effect of mycorrhization of apple young plants with a biopreparation based on symbiotic fungi of arbuscular mycorrhiza Glomus sp. on the drought-resistance of Prikubanskoe apple variety on the dwarf rootstock of SK 7 was studied. Mycorrhization of plants with a biopreparation based on symbiotic fungi Glomus sp. in most variants positively affected the resistance to high temperatures and drought of experimental apple trees. The best water-retaining ability of the leaves (for 2 and 4 hours of exposure) was shown by plants in the variant with root treatment at a dose of 1.0 g of a biological preparation. Mycorrhization of apple young plants can be recommended as a nature-like technology that increases the adaptive potential of apple plants by mobilizing the mechanisms of symbiotic interaction of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and the root system of plants.

How to cite
Efimova I., Radchenko E., Nikiforova V. THE EFFECT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS ON THE RESISTANCE OF APPLE TREES TO THE STRESSORS OF THE SUMMER GROWING SEASON [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 114–123. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/09.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-114-123 (request date: 28.01.2022).
pdf
252 Кб
21 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 634.13+631.521:631.559
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-124-144
Keywords: TYPE, VARIETY, PEAR, ADAPTATION, DROUGHT TOLERANCE, XEROMORPHIC LEAF SIGNS, PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

Annotation

In condition of humid subtropical zone of Russia during 2002-2020, the degree of drought resistance of pear varieties and hybrids was assessed by anatomical, morphological and physiological parameters to study their adaptation mechanisms. Researchs objects different genotypes of genus Pyrus L. (varieties: Bere Zhiffar, Vega, Williams, Red Williams, Chernomorskaya Yantarnaya, Yuzhanka, Nektarnaya, Slavyanka, Verbena, Luchistaya, Bere Bosk, Rassvet, hybrid 8520, Kilchu). A set of physiological, anatomical and morphological indicators was used to assess the adaptability of the studied pear varieties to stress factor of the summer period (high temperature and low water-holding). It is established that change in the physiological processes affect the anatomical and morphological structure of the leaf. The assessment of drought resistance of the studied varieties and hybrids by the nature of changes in the parameters of the water regime is given. It was determined that water-holding capacity of the leaf blade in all genotypes has a high inverse dependence (r= -0,77) on the number of stomates on lower epidermis of the leaf. According to quantitative ratio of chlorophylls a and b, the varieties Bere Zhiffar, Bere Bosk and Chernomorskaya Yantarnaya were identified, confirming stability of the pigment system to water deficit at the most arid period. Continuous modification of the photosynthetic function of leaves associated with productivity and viability was noted. It was found that the influence of stressful weather conditions leads to the appearance of such xeromorphic traits in the genotype as increased development of the palisade parenchyma layer and a decrease in the number of stomates per unit surface. Varieties Red Williams, Chernomorskaya Yantarnaya, Vega and Rassvet are identified by the complex of the above characteristics as the most adaptive to the abiotic stress factors of the summer period of humid subtropics. Revealed adaptive features of these varieties allow to use them in breeding as sources of resistance to drought.

How to cite
Kiseleva N. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF PHISIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND ANATOMICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF LEAVES OF THE GENUS PYRUS L. TO IDENTIFY SOURCES OF ADAPTIVITY TO THE IMPACT OF SUMMER STRESS FACTORS IN BREEDING [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 124–144. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/10.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-124-144 (request date: 28.01.2022).
pdf
648 Кб
15 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 581:576.5:634.224
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-145-159
Keywords: GRAPES, ADAPTATION, SUMMER PERIOD, PROTECTIVE REACTIONS, BOUNDED WATER, PROLINE

Annotation

In connection with climate change, it is necessary to improve the assortment of grapes adapted to the conditions of the south of Russia. The purpose of the work is to identify physiological and biochemical indicators associated with the formation of protective reactions of various grape varieties to the effect of summer stressors; to identify adaptive varieties for cultivation in the Anapo-Taman zone of the Krasnodar region on the basis of them. Adaptive resistance of grapes to high temperatures was achieved by increasing the content of bound water and proline. It was found that the indicator of the ratio of bound water to free water, which determines the resistance to drought in the varieties Krasnostop AZOS, Kristall, Zarif, is higher than in other studied varieties and was 5.23-5.24 by the end of summer. The varieties Dostoynyi, Krasnostop AZOS, Aligote showed the maximum amounts of proline (52.41-66.14 μg/g raw weight), involved in the implementation of stress-protective mechanisms. Adaptive changes in water-soluble proteins and sugars played a decisive role in the formation of high-temperature stability in summer. A minimal decrease in the content of soluble proteins (by 1.3 times) during the summer was noted in the Dostoynyi and Kristall varieties, indicating their high adaptive ability. The unstable Aligote variety showed a maximum decrease in the content of soluble proteins by the end of summer (3.4 times). The Zarif variety showed the smallest changes in the content of soluble sugars (a decrease of 1.3 times), indicating increased adaptation to arid conditions. It was found that the induction of protective adaptive mechanisms is more pronounced in the varieties Dostoynyi, Krasnostop AZOS, Zarif, which proved to be more adaptive in comparison with other studied varieties in the conditions of the summer period 2019-2020.

How to cite
Nenko N., Kiseleva G., Ilina I., Sokolova V., Zaporogets N., Karavaeva A., Shalyaho T. METABOLIC CHANGES IN DIFFERENT GRAPE VARIETIES IN THE ACTIVATION OF PROTECTIVE REACTIONS TO ABIOTIC STRESS OF THE SUMMER PERIOD [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 145–159. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/11.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-145-159 (request date: 28.01.2022).
pdf
225 Кб
16 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 581.1
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-160-175
Keywords: JASMONIC ACID, PLANT MATERIAL, EXTRACT, HYDROLYSIS, ANALYSIS, CHROMATOGRAPHY

Annotation

Jasmonic acid and its methyl ester exhibit various physiological and biochemical effects in a wide range of plant cellular processes. However, there is no reliable available method for determining their mass concentration in complex biological objects. The objects of research were fresh leaves of Hibiscus rosa-chinensis, Sansevieria, Juglans regia L., Morus, Vítis. The aim of the research was to improve the analytical method for the quantitative determination of the mass concentration of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate, to develop the conditions for preparing samples for analysis. To carry out the work, a capillary ion electrophoretic analyzer "Kapel 104T", a gas chromatograph "Kristall 2000M", a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer GC-MS Perkin Elmer Clarus 600T were used. The approbation of the method of capillary electrophoresis and capillary gas chromatography for the quantitative determination of methyl jasmonate was carried out. The unsuitability of the method of capillary electrophoresis for the direct determination of methyl jasmont was established, and the possibility of determining methyl jasmonate after extraction with hexane by capillary gas chromatography was shown. An increased dosage of the hexane extract sample into the chromatograph was applied, which made it possible to achieve the required level of analysis sensitivity. Application of GC-MS method for identification of methyl jasmonate in hexane extract of leaves with a sensitivity threshold of 0.01 mg/dm3 is shown. The conditions of hydrolysis of plant samples exposure time and concentration of potassium alkali were found experimentally. For the subsequent quantitative determination of jasmonic acid, the method of capillary electrophoresis was used; an electrolyte based on boric acid was used. The completeness of hydrolysis of jasmonic acid esters was tested on solutions of methyl jasmonate. Data on the content of methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid in biological objects were obtained.

How to cite
Lepeshkina S. DETERMINATION OF THE CONTENT OF JASMONIC ACID AND METHYL JASMONATE IN PLANT LEAVES [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 160–175. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/12.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-160-175 (request date: 28.01.2022).

General agrotechnics (systems, technology)

pdf
601 Кб
46 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 634.1:631.811.98
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-176-221
Keywords: BIOSTIMULATORS, PRODUCTIVITY OF GARDEN CROPS, CLASSIFICATION OF BIOSTIMULATORS, REGULATORS PLANT GROWTH, ABIOTIC STRESS, PHYTHORMONES

Annotation

The prospects of application biostimulants of growth to increase the resistance and stability of fruiting of fruit crops are discussed. Fruit crops are exposed to stress factors, both biotic and abiotic. Climate changes, especially regional weather conditions, characterized by a higher frequency of extreme manifestations of abiotic stress, strongly affect the growth and productivity, the quality of fruit plant products. Increasing the productivity of fruit crops is achieved by regulating the main factors of the production process. One of the promising areas of modern horticulture for increasing the resistance and formation of stable productivity of fruit agrocenoses is the development of a system for the application of biostimulants. Groups of biostimulants, their classification, characteristics and mechanism of action on plants are considered. The analysis of the influence of biostimulants on the stability and productivity of fruit crops is presented. It is shown that biostimulants in low concentrations have a growth-stimulating effect, enhance plant metabolism and increase the degree of absorption of nutrients from the soil. Their application makes it possible to increase the efficiency and reduce the amount of mineral fertilizers used in the management system for garden crops cultivated using intensive technologies. The role of biostimulants in the preservation of soil fertility of garden agrocenoses is revealed, since these drugs can stimulate the activity of useful soil microorganisms and optimize the absorption of nutrients from the soil by plants. The anti-stress properties of biostimulants were studied and analyzed to preserve the productivity level of fruit plants, the quality of fruits in conditions of drought, salinity, low and high temperatures. The available developments in the field of the application of biostimulants in horticulture indicate the prospects of applying the research results for further improvement of intensive technologies for cultivating fruit plantations based on methods of biologization and ecologization of production processes.

How to cite
Popova V., Oplachko R., Oplachko E. THE PROSPECT OF APPLICATION BIOSTIMULANTS OF GROWTH TO INCREASE THE STABILITY OF FRUITING OF FRUIT CROPS [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 176–221. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/13.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-176-221 (request date: 28.01.2022).
pdf
363 Кб
12 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 634.8.07
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-222-233
Keywords: GRAPES, GIBBERELLINS, SEEDLESS VARIETIES, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, YIELD AND PRODUCT QUALITY

Annotation

The article shows the results of the influence of gibberellin on the productivity of seedless grape varieties of the AZES breeding. The indicators of photosynthetic activity of leaves are considered: the content of pigments (chlorophyll a + b and carotene), the size of the leaf surface area and the accumulation of sugars in grape berries. Analysis of these studies showed an increase in the amount of chlorophylls during treatments with gibberellin of a grape plant, as well as an individual reaction depending on the dosage of the preparation and the grape variety. The obtained data indicate that the application of exogenous gibberellin leads to changes in the morphogenesis of grape plants. During the entire growing season, the plants treated with gibberellin showed more intensive growth than the plants of the control variant. An increase in the length of shoots due to the lengthening of internodes at increased doses of GA was revealed. At the same time, no effect on the number of stem nodes was noted; therefore, shoot elongation is associated with stretching of the stem cells. It was proved that under the action of the preparation the total area of grape leaves increased, leading to the formation of a more powerful leaf apparatus: at a dose of GA of 1 ml in the Lotos variety by 22.6 %; Zhemchug Anapy by 28.8 %; Kishmish rozovyi AZOS 16.9 % higher than the control indicator. It is known that the accumulation of sugars in grape berries is due to the photosynthetic activity of the leaf apparatus. As shown by laboratory and field analyzes, gibberellin affects the sugar content in grapes, accelerating the ripening and timing of the harvest. In the variety Lotos, Zhemchug Anapy with a dosage of 1 ml GA and Kishmish rozovyi AZOS with a GA 0.75 three times, the sugar content of berries exceeded the control variants.

How to cite
Ahmedova Y., Radchevskiy P. INCREASING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF GRAPES BY PHYTOHORMONAL REGULATION [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 222–233. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/14.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-222-233 (request date: 28.01.2022).
pdf
217 Кб
8 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 638.19.574
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-234-241
Keywords: CANE NEST CHANNEL, CELL, COCOON, DIAMETER, OSMIA

Annotation

Osmia is an effective and prospective pollinator of Rosaceae family plants. This insect has a range of advantages, due to which it can be successfully bred on the industrial level. For the period of our multi-year research the certain experience of the breeding of Osmia has been accumulated. The main conditions of successful reproduction are the selection of the material and the size of the nesting channel. The paper presents the results of assessing the prospects for industrial breeding of a solitary bee Osmia rufa. Studies have shown that this species prefer to inhabit cane nesting channels (55 % of the population) with a diameter from 6 to 9 millimeters. The percentage of populating the channels of 6, 7, 8, 9 millimeters was 19.4%, 23.8 %, 18.2 % and 13.8 % respectively of all populated channels. According to the length of the channel, channels with a length of 100 to 200 mm were preferable, in which 64.8 % of all inhabited lengths were populated. The largest number of channels contained 3, 4, 5 cells 14.6 %, 16.4 % and 14.4 % respectively. The studies of the content of the cells showed that 2671 cells with average length of 11,8 0,94 millimeters have been built in 494 channels. 1960 cells contained whole cocoons (73.4 %), which is the absolute majority of all built cells. Parasites (flies Cacoxenus indagator, mites Chaetodactylus smi, skin beetles Trichodes apiaries) were contained in 206 cells and their total harmfulness was 7.7 %, dead Osmial larvae and damaged cocoons was noted in 262 cells (9.8 % of all cells built).

How to cite
Golikov V. TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BREEDING SOLITARY BEE OSMIA RUFA L. [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 234–241. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/15.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-234-241 (request date: 28.01.2022).

Quality Management

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281 Кб
21 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 658.562.5
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-242-262
Keywords: MICROVINIFICATION, MEASURING AND TESTING EQUIPMENT, QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Annotation

The development of the draft regulatory documentation on the process of the quality management system (QMS) Management of measuring and testing equipment for the wine-making enterprise is presented. The purpose of the developed manual is to ensure the control and analysis of indicators of the quality of wine products throughout the technological and production cycle, which determine the achievement of the necessary high level of product quality, through the formation of uninterrupted operation of measuring and testing equipment. The process of creating the manual was based on the identification of critical points in the existing scheme of technochemical control of the production of white and red table wines; the development of the algorithm of the process Control of measuring and testing equipment"; the description of the management procedure of the control, measuring and testing equipment of OOO SIE Mikrovinodelie. The critical points of the quality management process of the produced wine are determined these are physico-chemical and microbiological indicators that should be monitored throughout the technological scheme. In order to determine the required measuring and testing equipment of the winemaking production, which allows objectively monitoring the quality of products throughout the technological process, an analysis of the existing regulatory documentation at the enterprise was carried out, on the basis of which information on control methods and devices for monitoring and measuring controlled indicators was systematized. The main elements of the process Control of measuring and testing equipment are defined, including handling operations; packaging; storage; delivery of products. The contextual diagram, the algorithm of the process, the matrix of responsibility distribution, input and output requirements for the process with references to the previously developed normative documentation regulating their implementation are proposed; the procedures for management of control, measuring and testing equipment at the winery are described.

How to cite
Ilina I., Machneva I., Stepanov M. QMS PROCESS MANUAL MANAGEMENT OF MEASURING AND TESTING EQUIPMENT FOR WINE-MAKING ENTERPRISE [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 242–262. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/16.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-242-262 (request date: 28.01.2022).

Phytosanitary condition of plants

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198 Кб
14 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 574.34:632.91
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-263-276
Keywords: LOBESIA BOTRANA, EUROPEAN GRAPE MOTH, PLANT PROTECTION, FLIGHT DYNAMICS, FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION

Annotation

In the paper the process of decomposition of data on the dynamics of the pest population flight in the form of a frequency binomial distribution and its primary statistical assessment is presented on an example of pheromone monitoring data of a European grape moth (Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff.) in the ampelocenoses of the Taman Peninsula. The observed and statistical indicators of the frequency distribution of the flight of this pest of three economically significant generations are presented. The following are presented: the beginning, the length of flight, the central trend of flught and the expected period of the central trend, and also, with significant limitations, the period of the mass flight of the pest is indicated, calculated as the standard deviation of the flight of all individuals in the period. Also, such indicators as kurtosis, asymmetry and others were calculated and presented, which allow to better understand the nature of the flight of the pest. According to the calculated data, following conclusions are drawn: the actually observed flight of the European grape moth is more uniform in comparison with the theoretical abstraction. At the same time, the first flight is more stretched and unstable than the subsequent mating periods, as indicated by the influence of abiotic environmental factors. Also, according to four generations, the period of full development of one generation of the European grape moth in field conditions has been established. The main probabilistic indicators and differences between the generations are presented. These data can help in understanding the age dynamics of the population of the European grape moth and its probabilistic nature to improve the forecast of pest development and the timing of protective measures. In the paper is also mentioned the falseness of terminology in the designation of flight periods, adopted both in the educational and scientific literature on the European grape moth, and among farmers.

How to cite
Orlov O., Urchenko E. EUROPEAN GRAPEVINE MOTH FLIGHT AND ITS STATISTICAL RATES IN TAMAN PENINSULA AMPELOCENOSES [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 263–276. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/17.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-263-276 (request date: 28.01.2022).

Processing of fruit and berries production and grapes

pdf
793 Кб
12 с.
Date posted: 15.11.2021
UDC: 663.253.2
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-277-288
Keywords: WINE MATERIAL, BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES, VITAMINS, PHENOLIC SUBSTANCES, RED TECHNICAL GRAPE VARIETIES

Annotation

Varietal characteristics and soil-ecological conditions, i.e. the place of growth, have the greatest influence on the quality indicators of grapes. For their widespread introduction into industrial viticulture, not only an agrobiological assessment is necessary, but also a technological one. In this regard, the purpose of the research was comprehensive study of wine materials from the distinguished grape varieties of the Anapa ampelographic collection. The conducted researches have revealed a number of promising red technical grape varieties with useful host-biological and technological features that are resistant to environmental factors. It has been established that AZESV&W breeding varieties (Merlot AZOS, Kubanets, Lazurnyi, Saturn, Krasnostop AZOS, Krasnostop anapskiy, Dostoynyi) accumulate in their composition a sufficient amount of sugars for the preparation of both table and liqueur wines. A large number of phenolic substances have been identified in their composition, which provide a stable color of wine during storage, and also have a high biological value due to the high accumulation of trans-resveratrol, vitamins and phenol-carboxylic acids. Wine materials from the studied grape varieties have excellent organoleptic properties, have a high tasting score and have been repeatedly awarded international and Russian wine competitions. Some of them suitable for being aged. Table red wines made from grape varieties of the AZESV&W breeding are not inferior to wine materials from the classic Cabernet Sauvignon variety in terms of the content of biologically active substances, organoleptic evaluation and are of high and stable quality. They are recommended for the production of high-quality tables, and in years favorable for sugar production and for the preparation of liqueur wines. Some wines made from varieties of AZESV&W breeding have been repeatedly awarded gold and silver medals at Russian and international tasting competitions.

How to cite
Yakimenko E., Mitrofanova E., Dergunov A., Ageeva N., Shelud'ko O. CHARACTERISTICS OF WINE MATERIALS FROM RED TECHNICAL GRAPE VARIETIES OF AZESV&W BREEDING [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 72(6). pp. 277–288. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/06/18.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-6-72-277-288 (request date: 28.01.2022).