Thematic electronic scientific online journal NCFSCHVW

Fruit growing
and viticulture of South Russia



Issue: 76(4)

Date posted: 25.07.22

Total articles: 22

Total authors: 59

DOI of issue: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76

Genetic Resources, Cultivar, selection

pdf
296 Кб
13 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 634.1:631.52
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-1-13
Keywords: APPLE-TREE, GRADE, GENOTYPE, DNA-MARKING, MARKER, CLUSTER ANALYSIS

Annotation

The studies were carried out in accordance with the programs and methods of breeding and variety study generally accepted and developed at the FSBSI NCFSCHVW in the Center for Collective Use Research and Breeding Collection of Genetic Resources of Horticultural Crops (CCU RBC GRHC). The objects of research are varieties and forms of apple trees (Malus × domestica Borkh.) of different ploidy and genetic origin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the allelic polymorphism of microsatellite sequences in the genome of collection specimens of the genus Malus Mill. as a starting material for further breeding. Genotyping of 48 apple varieties (of which: 44 diploids and 4 triploids) of the genetic collection of the FSBSI NCFSCHVW was carried out using 12 SSR markers: CH04c07, GD12, CH03d07, CH02C09, CH01h10, GD96, CH04e05, GD100, Hi02c07, GD147, CH01f02, CH02c11. Markers have been established that have: the largest number of alleles GD12 (18 alleles); the smallest number of alleles CH01h10 and Hi02c07 (10 alleles); the largest number of effective alleles CH01f02 (9.018) and CH02c11 (9.366); the smallest number of effective alleles CH01h10 (3.499). According to the diversity index, loci CH01f02 and CH02c11 were identified as having the highest allelic polymorphism. The grouping of the studied 48 apple varieties was performed based on the results of genotyping for the two most informative markers (CH01a02 and CH02c11) and cluster analysis. The highest average allele length (2480.40) is in the varieties included in the third cluster, then in the second cluster (1019.66), in the fourth cluster (819.65) and in the first cluster (603.28). 4 groups consisting of 7, 3, 22 and 16 varieties, respectively, were formed according to the average length of alleles. The results of the analysis of this sample of apple varieties are important for solving the problems of structuring the gene pool and further breeding studies.

How to cite
Shcheglov S., Ulyanovskaya E., Tokmakov S., Chernutskaya E., Balapanov I. ASSESSMENT OF THE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS MALUS MILL. USING DNA ANALYSIS AND STATISTICAL METHODS [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 1–13. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/01.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-1-13 (request date: 04.10.2022).
pdf
672 Кб
12 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 634.13/14:581.1.045
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-14-25
Keywords: DROUGHT, HEAT, ROOTSTOCKS, PEAR, QUINCE

Annotation

Drought resistance of plants is the ability of plants to withstand the significant dehydration and overheating of their organism, the ability to survive during drought with the least decrease in yield capacity. Heat resistance (heat tolerance) is the ability of plants to withstand the high temperature effect and overheat. Seed crops were studied: pear forms PG 12 (control), PG 17-16, PG 2, K-1, K-2, Kavkazskaya, OHF 333, Piro II, 4-26, 4-39 and quince forms Severnaya, BA 29, studies were conducted on the resistance of pear and quince forms to drought and heat resistance in laboratory conditions. The zoned pear form PG 12 was used as a control. In this regard, the purpose of our research was a set of measures to assess the initial forms of pears and quinces for drought and heat resistance. As a result of the research, it was found that moisture retention index varies significantly in the studied pear and quince forms. The pear forms PG 2, K-2, Kavkazskaya and quince form BA 29 were characterized as highly resistant to drought, in which water loss was from 8.2 to 21.8%, and the degree of water was from 50.0 to 100.0%. Water deficit in these forms was within 4.4 - 7.1%. The highest water-holding capacity was observed in pear PG 17-16 79,5 %, Kavkazskaya 80,9 % and quince B 29 86,6 %. The water-holding capacity of the pear form K-2 was 67,3 %. When evaluating the heat resistance of pear and quince forms, the differences in the resistance of these forms to the action of temperatures were revealed. A good water-holding capacity after exposure to stressful positive temperatures is preserved by the pear form Kavkazskaya, which has a water deficit of 4,8 %. At the same time water-holding capacity was 70,9 %, water loss 19,1 %, degree of water content 38,4 %.

How to cite
Zatsepina I. DROUGHT AND HEAT RESISTANCE OF PEAR AND QUINCE FORMS [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 14–25. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/02.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-14-25 (request date: 04.10.2022).
pdf
634 Кб
10 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 634.232:471.63
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-26-35
Keywords: VARIETY, SWEET CHERRY, CLIMATE INDICATORS, ABIOTIC FACTORS, ADAPTIVITY, YIELD, PRODUCTIVITY

Annotation

The cultivation of a number of crops (especially stone fruit, with a short dormant period) in the south of Russia is determined mainly by the temperature factor. The biological potential of sweet cherry adaptability is limited by the temperature limit equal to minus 27.028.0 º in winter, from minus 2.5 to minus 8.0 º in spring, depending on the degree of development of the flower organs. As a result of exposure to low critical temperatures at various phenological phases of development, yield losses are possible up to 80-95 %. The study revealed the climatic factor that had the greatest impact on yield capacity the annual precipitation (R=0.381). Other factors did not significantly affect the formation of productivity: the average annual air temperature (R= 0.167), the sum of temperatures above +10 º (R= 0.160), the absolute minimum temperature (R= 0.007). Various weather stressors have been studied over the last 10 years of observations, which led to a significant loss of the yield of sweet cherry varieties. The most unfavorable years were 2014, 2017 and 2020, when 80-95 % of sweet cherry fruit buds died due to early frosts and return freezings. The yield capacity in these years decreased from 5.0-10.0 kg per tree to single fruits, depending on the variety. Against the background of the manifestation of weather anomalies, resistant varieties were identified Alaya, Dar izobiliya and Volshebnitsa. In years with favorable abiotic factors, sweet cherry is able to form up to 45-50 kg of fruit per tree, such conditions prevailed in 2021. In some varieties, the yield capacity reached 60-65 kg per tree, these include Alaya, Dar izobiliya and Kavkazskaya. In addition, an indicator was determined that significantly affects the yield capacity, the number of fruit buds (R= 0.840), which also directly depends on weather and climatic factors

How to cite
Dolya Y. CLIMATIC FACTORS SOUTH OF RUSSIA FOR IMPLEMENTATION THE PRODUCTIVITY POTENTIAL OF CHERRY VARIETIES [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 26–35. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/03.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-26-35 (request date: 04.10.2022).
pdf
580 Кб
12 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-36-47
Keywords: GRAPES, ROOTSTOCKS, YIELD CAPACITY, QUALITY OF GRAPES

Annotation

The selection of highly effective rootstocks for new grape varieties is relevant in modern viticulture. The influence of different rootstocks Chasselas × Berlandieri 41B and Berlandieri × Riparia SO4 on the agrobiological indicators of the Livia grape variety in the Central agroecological viticulture zone (fourth subzone) of the Krasnodar region is shown. The planting scheme of bushes on irrigated vineyards in the field experiment is 3.8 × 2 m, the formation of bushes is a high-standard two-armed cordon. The soils are low-humus, leached powerful chernozems. The average annual air temperature is 12.5-13.0 º, the sum of active temperatures is 3900-4100 º. The annual total precipitation is 700-800 mm. Grapes of the Livia variety on the 41B rootstock significantly outperform the analogue on the SO4 rootstock. Plantations on rootstock 41B are distinguished by a larger mass of bunches, elegance, large size and organoleptic properties of berries, and grape yield capacity. Ripening on rootstock 41B started much earlier than on rootstock SO4. In the agro-ecological conditions of 2020, the difference was 13-17 days, in 2021 4-7 days. Mass ripening in 2020 was earlier by 7-20 days, in 2021 by 6-7 days. The average weight of a bunch on the 41B rootstock was 30% more than on the SO4 rootstock and amounted to 0.674 kg. In terms of grape yield from a bush, plantings on rootstock 41B exceeded the analogue by 1.5 times. The yield capacity of grapes on rootstock 41B was higher than on SO4 by an average of 1.5 times and amounted to 24.62 t/ha. The share of marketable grapes was 93% on rootstock 41B, on rootstock SO4 90%. The tasting score of grapes grown on rootstock 41B was on average 8.8 points, on SO4 8.1 points. The positive effect of rootstock 41B on the biological and economically valuable characteristics of grapes is the basis for the wide practical use of this rootstock for the Livia grape variety in the Central agro-ecological viticulture zone of the Krasnodar region.

How to cite
Petrov V., Fisyura A., Marmorshtein A. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LIVIA GRAPE VARIETY UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 36–47. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/04.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-36-47 (request date: 04.10.2022).
pdf
828 Кб
16 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 634.86
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-48-63
Keywords: GRAPE, VARIETY, BERRY, PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS, COLORED FLESH, WINE MATERIAL, CULTIVATION AREA

Annotation

In the article presents the results of the study of quality indicators of wine grape varieties with intensively colored flesh Pamyati Golodrigi, Krasen and Nika, cultivated in the southern coastal and western foothill-coastal zones of Crimea. Studies were conducted in 2020-2021. Under different conditions of cultivation, the varieties under study show varietal specificity. Analysis of the indicator average grape bunch weight allows us to state that under the conditions of the southern coastal zone of Crimea, varieties Pamyati Golodrigi (control) and Krasen form a larger bunch, while the grape variety Nika has the opposite trend. Agroclimatic conditions of the western foothill-coastal zone of the Crimea favor high accumulation of sugars in berries grapes all presented varieties (Pamyati Golodrigi 24.0 g/100 cm3 , Krasen 25.1 g/100 cm3 , Nika 23.6 g/100 cm3 ), as well as high synthesis of phenolic compounds compared to the Southern coastal zone: Krasen variety accumulates an average of 310.3 m/100 g against 278.2 mg/100 g (Southern coastal zone), Nika 368.85 mg/100 g against 339.7 mg/100g (Southern coastal zone), slightly superior to the control variety. Red dessert and liqueur wines were prepared from the yield of the studied varieties in 2020-2021. The tasting score of the liqueur wine material from Krasen (western foothill-coastal zone of the Crimea) was 7.78 and 7.88 points, and the wine material from this variety (southern coastal zone) received 7.83 and 7.88 points. Dessert wine material from the Nika variety (western foothill-coastal zone of the Crimea) scored 7.74 and 7.79, and wine material from the southern coastal zone scored 7.76 and 7.79. Samples of wine materials from the yield of the presented varieties by the totality of characteristics are promising, being at the level of the control variety Pamyati Golodrigi. The higher quality of wine materials prepared from the yield of the studied varieties, collected in the southern coastal zone of Crimea, which is probably due to the component composition of the phenolic complex

How to cite
Studennikova N., Vasylyk I., Kotolovets Z., Rybachenko N. QUALITY COMPONENTS OF GRAPE VARIETIES OF COMPLEX GENETIC STRUCTURE IN DIFFERENT ZONES OF CRIMEA [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 48–63. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/05.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-48-63 (request date: 04.10.2022).
pdf
259 Кб
14 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 634.8:631.526.32:581.192(470.32)
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-64-77
Keywords: GRAPES, VARIETIES, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ORGANIC ACIDS, SUGARS, ANTHOCYANINS, MINERALS

Annotation

Both for the processing industry and for recommendations to consumers, a comprehensive study of the qualitative characteristics of berries of grape varieties and forms in specific natural and climatic conditions, including chemical composition, becomes important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the main chemical components of the gene pool collection of grape varieties growing in the conditions of the Central chernozem region (Michurinsk). The studies were conducted in the period 2017-2021. Berries of the varieties grown on the experimental sites of the Laboratory of Private Genetics and Breeding of the I.V. Michurin Federal Research Center were used as objects of research. The collection is represented by varieties of various species origin obtained in Russia, Ukraine, USA, Moldova, Bulgaria, Hungary. Chemical analyses of the fruit were carried out on the basis of the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Technologies of the FSBSI I.V. Michurin FSC according to the standard methods: the content of soluble solids refractometrically; the content of the sum of sugars, organic acids, ascorbic acid by titrimetric methods; anthocyanins by pH-differential spectrophotometry, mineral elements by capillary electrophoresis. Valuable genotypes with improved parameters of the chemical composition of fruits have been identified: total sugar content (above 18.0 %) Kishmish koktail, Rozalia; high sugar-acid index (above 35) Vostorg, Baklanovskiy, Rozalia, Elf; ascorbic acid content (above 10.0 mg/100 g) Asya, Denisovskiy, Kishmish vengerskiy, Platovsky; anthocyanins (above 70.0 mg/100 g) Denisovskiy, Agat donskoy; mineral substances Kodryanka (K+ 144.2 mg/100 g, Na+ 2.0 mg/100 g, Mg2+ 9.3 mg/100 g, Ca2+ 19.6 mg/100 g)

How to cite
Zhbanova Y., Abyzov V. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GENETIC COLLECTION OF GRAPE VARIETIES ACCORDING TO THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FRUITS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL CHERNOZEM REGION [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 64–77. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/06.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-64-77 (request date: 04.10.2022).
pdf
312 Кб
12 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 634.8.06
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-78-89
Keywords: GRAPES, BREEDING, ELITE HYBRID FORM, PHENOLOGY, AGROBIOLOGICAL RECORDS, UVOLOGY, BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS

Annotation

The article presents the results of many years of scientific research on the selection of hybrid forms of grapes into the elite during breeding work at the Anapa zonal experimental station of viticulture and wine-making. These hybrids are studied at the hybrid site to identify a complex of economically valuable and adaptively significant traits and properties that exceed standard varieties. The ultimate goal is to create new promising zoned varieties. The bush training system is a vertical trellis. The formation is standard, cordon type Spiral cordon AZOS-1. The feeding area is 3.5 x 2.0 m. The relief of the site is flat-lying, the slope of the south-western exposure. Three elite forms of the technical direction of use are distinguished: K-73-1 (F/U Dzhemete x Krasnostop Anapskiy) the form of the average ripening period; K-74-17 (F/U Dzhemete x Krasnostop Anapskiy) the average ripening period; K-74-24 (Cabernet Franc x F/U Dzhemete) the form of average ripening period. On the studied elite hybrid forms of the technical direction of use, the following researches were carried out: phenological observations, agrobiological records, morphological and biochemical analyses. Among the elite hybrid forms of the technical direction of use, the highest fruitfulness coefficient k1 is in K-74-24 1,4, and the lowest in K-73-1 1,1. The studied forms are slightly superior i n the mechanical composition of the bunches to the control variety, especially the ratios of stems and berries, juice and pulp with skin and seeds. Based on morphological and chemical analyses, the studied technical elite hybrid forms of grapes are recommended for making wine in dry and dessert versions, since they have a high glucoacidometric index and the content of phenolic substances in the must.

How to cite
Gorbunov I., Yakuba Y. RESEARCH OF ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE TRAITS OF NEW HYBRID FORMS OF GRAPES OF AZESV&W BREEDING [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 78–89. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/07.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-78-89 (request date: 04.10.2022).
pdf
590 Кб
12 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 634.8:632.3
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-90-101
Keywords: WILD GRAPES, ECOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS, POPULATION, MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURE, VARIABILITY, PHYTOPATHOGENS

Annotation

The authors of the article show the results of studies of several new places of growing wild forms of grapes in the Krasnodar region, namely on the territory of the state nature reserve Utrish, the nature reserve Red Forest, in the forests and floodplain of the Psebeps river of the Crimean district. In the Utrish Nature Reserve, grape populations were discovered and studied in the tracts: Waterfall Gap, Wide Gap and Lobanova Gap. During the expeditions, ecological and geographical characteristics of the habitats of wild forms of grapes were given, a complete description of the vegetation of the studied ecotopes was carried out, as well as morphological and biological qualitative and quantitative indicators (more than 40 units) of wild grapes, as well as their phytosanitary condition were studied in detail. When analyzing scientific literature data, it was found that there is insufficient scientific information on the ecological c onditions of growth and biological features of both the genus Vitis L. and the entire Vitaceae Juss family. This is especially true of Kuban wild plants, feral forms and autochthons of grapes. In this regard, there is an urgent need for this study. The study of wild grapes was carried out using route- reconnoitering, geobotanical, ampelographic, analytical methods. As a result, the variability of many morphological indicators of the vegetative and generative spheres of wild grape plants was found to varying degrees, both at the interpopulation and endogenous levels. Populations, as well as individual grape plants, differ in: the shape of the leaf blade, the openness of the tip of the young shoot, the degree of weblike cotton of the crown of the young shoot, the depth of the upper lateral clippings of the leaf, the degree of cotton of the underside of the leaf, etc. The following pathogens were detected on wild grape forms: Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burrill, Phomopsis viticola Sacc., Gloeosporium ampelophagum (Pass.) Sacc. Damage to the leaf apparatus was found from following pests: Colomerus vitis Pgst. (grape bud mite), Metcalfa pruinosa Say. (flatid planthopper), and polyphagous leaf-eating insects.

How to cite
Gorbunov I., Lukyanova A. MORPHO-BIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF WILD FORMS OF KUBAN GRAPES AND THEIR PATHOCOMPLEX [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 90–101. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/08.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-90-101 (request date: 04.10.2022).
pdf
550 Кб
9 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 634.75:577.2:632.4
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-102-110
Keywords: STRAWBERRY, MOLECULAR MARKERS, FRUIT AROMA, FAFAD1 GENE

Annotation

The aroma of fruits is an important consumer trait of strawberry varieties. Among the most important aromatic substances contained in strawberry fruits is γ-decalactone, which has a peach-like, fruity sweet aroma. The present study shows the results of the molecular genetic analysis of strawberry varieties and selected forms created in the "I.V. Michurin Federal Scientific Center", according to the FaFAD1 gene involved in the biosynthesis of γ-decalactone, to identify promising genotypes for breeding to fruit aroma. The biological objects of the study were strawberry varieties and selected forms of the breeding "I.V. Michurin FSC": Lastochka, Privlekatelnaya, Urozhaynaya CGL, Feyyerverk, Flora, Yarkaya, 26-5 (Rubinovyy kulon × 298-19-9-43), 56-5, 56-8 (Gigantella Maxim × Privlekatelnaya), 61-12 (Bylinnaya × Olimpiyskaya nadezhda), 72-25 (Privlekatelnaya ×Bylinnaya), 928-12 (298-19-9-43 × Privlekatelnaya), 932-29 (F. virginiana subsp. platypetala (Rydb.) Staudt × Feyyerverk) and 298-19-9-43 (FB2 F. orientalis Los., F. moschata Duch., F. × ananassa Duch.). Genomic DNA extraction was carried out from young leaves according to the modified CTAB method. The FaFAD1 gene was identified with dominant DNA marker FaFAD1. As the result of the molecular genetic research, the following strawberry selected forms, promising for breeding to improved fruit aroma, were identified: 72-25 (Privlekatelnaya × Bylinnaya), 56-8 (Gigantella Maxim × Privlekatelnaya), 61-12 (Bylinnaya × Olimpiyskaya nadezhda), which are characterized by the presence of a functional allele of the FaFAD1 gene. The strawberry selected form 72-25 (Privlekatelnaya × Bylinnaya) is additionally characterized by the presence of the FaOMT gene in the heterozygous state, so this form is a complex source of fruit aroma genes (FaOMT and FaFAD1).

How to cite
Lijin A., Lukyanchuk I. MOLECULAR SCREENING OF STRAWBERRY VARIETIES AND FORMS CREATED IN I.V. MICHURIN FSC BY THE FAFAD1 GENE OF FRUIT AROMA [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 102–110. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/09.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-102-110 (request date: 04.10.2022).
pdf
2128 Кб
11 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 634.7: 631.52
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-111-121
Keywords: STRAWBERRY, PINK-FLOWERED HYBRIDS, PRODUCTIVITY, QUALITY OF BERRY, SELECTION

Annotation

The paper presents the results of the evaluation of 8 hybrid pink-flowered forms of strawberry for the some economically valuable traits. Selections 1-28-12, 7-20-12, 6-9-12 (Djeni), 8-24-12, 3-27-12, 8-9-12 were studied from the hybrid combination Belrubi × F1 C-141 and 6-14-12, one form 5-9-15 was studied from the combination Onda × F1 Toscana. The analysis of the variability of breeding samples was carried out by the traits of the productivity and quality of the berry: the number of inflorescences, the number of berries, the weight of the 1st order berry, the average weight of the berry, the density of the pulp of the berry, the content of total soluble solids, the sum of sugars, acidity, sugar-acid index, the content of vitamins C, P and anthocyanins. The aim of this work was to evaluate hybrid pink-flowered forms on the traits of productivity and quality of berry and to identify the best ones for use in home gardening in the North Caucasian region. Programs and methods generally accepted in Russia were used for the research. A comprehensive study of strawberry hybrids by the economically valuable characters was provided the distribution of the studied forms on the groups using the cluster analysis by the Ward's method. With a linkage distance of 62.0 cu/s three groups were distinguished, which included one, two and five hybrid numbers of strawberry, respectively. The selection efficiency of partition into cluster groups of the studied hybrid forms of strawberry in accordance with their genotypically determined mutual affinity was also verified by plotting a graphical distribution of hybrids on the plane of the X and Y coordinate axes. As a result of a comprehensive breeding and genetic assessment of hybrid pink-flowered forms of strawberry by the traits of productivity and quality of berry, the best of them were selected for use in the home gardening in the North Caucasian region: 5-9-15 from the Onda × F1 Toscana combination, as well as 1-28- 12, 7-20-12, 3-27-12 and 8-24-12 from Belrubi×F1 C-141.

How to cite
Yakovenko V., Lapshin V. SELECTION OF THE PINK-FLOWERED HYBRIDS OF STRAWBERRY BY THE COMPLEX OF ECONOMIC VALUABLE TRAITS [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 111–121. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/10.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-111-121 (request date: 04.10.2022).

Physiology and biochemistry of plants

pdf
682 Кб
15 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 581:576.5:634.224
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-122-136
Keywords: GRAPES, ADAPTATION, SUMMER PERIOD, WATER CONTENT, CHLOROPHYLL, CAROTENOIDS

Annotation

Due to recent climatic changes a decrease in the amount of precipitation in the phenophase of berry growth and ripening, the issues of drought resistance of grapes, the selection of the most resistant varieties are relevant. The purpose of the work is to study the structural and functional changes of the leaves of various grape varieties under the influence of stressors of the summer period, to identify highly drought-resistant varieties for cultivation in the Anapo-Taman zone of the Krasnodar region. The objects of research are grape varieties of various ecological and geographical origin: Kristall (control) Euro-Amuro-American origin; Krasnostop AZOS, Dostoynyi Euro-American origin; Vostorg Amuro-American origin; Zarif Eastern origin; Aligote Western European origin. Differences in the hydration of leaf tissues and the content of photosynthetic pigments associated with the formation of a protective response to meteorological conditions in the summer of 2019-2021 were found. The following features was found in the varieties Kristall, Krasnostop AZOS, Vostorg, Zarif, identified as highly resistant to summer stresses: the smallest decrease in the water content of leaf tissues (1.3-2.3 %), in contrast to the varieties Dostoynyi and Aligote (by 2.9 %); - a slight (by 7.4-9.1 cm2 ) decrease in leaf area, in contrast to the varieties Dostoynyi and Aligote (by 27.5-29.3 cm2 ); - the most stable content of the total chlorophylls during the summer growing season, a decrease in their content (by 0.22-0.36 mg/g wet weight) in in contrast to varieties Dostoynyi and Aligote, in which the decrease was 0.69-0.88 mg/g fresh weight; - the lowest values of chlorophylls/carotenoids are 2.0-2.8, in contrast to the varieties Dostoynyi, Aligote - 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. The grape varieties Kristall, Krasnostop AZOS, Vostorg, Zarif, according to physiological and biochemical parameters, proved to be highly drought-resistant for cultivation in the Anapa-Taman zone of the Krasnodar region and use in breeding.

How to cite
Kiseleva G., Ilina I., Sokolova V., Zaporogets N., Karavaeva A., Shalyaho T. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHANGES OF THE GRAPE LEAF UNDER THE ACTION OF SUMMER STRESSORS [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 122–136. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/11.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-122-136 (request date: 04.10.2022).

Mineral nutrition of plants

pdf
4106 Кб
18 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 634.1:631.8
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-137-154
Keywords: APPLE TREE, SPECIAL AGROCHEMICALS, FOLIAR DRESSING, PLANT NUTRITION REGIME, YIELD CAPACITY

Annotation

The article presents the results of experimental studies of the effect of the systemic application of a Maxifol Mega special agrochemical of specific action on the functional state and nutrition regime of apple plants in unstable environmental conditions. Aqueous solutions of the drug were used in fruit-bearing plantings of low-growing apple trees of the Idared, Prikubanskoe, Renet Kubansky varieties in the experimental production farm Tsentralnoye (Krasnodar) in 2019-2021. Methodological support of field and laboratory studies of plant samples (leaves, shoots) is generally accepted, recommended for experiments with fertilization of fruit crops. It was found as a result of the research that non-root apple tree treatments had a positive effect on the intensity of synthetic processes in plants under the conditions of the destabilizing effect of abiotic factors. The total chlorophyll content in the leaves was 5.6-23.0% higher than this indicator in the control variant at the stage of formation and growth of fruits (X-XI stages of organogenesis) in 2019 and 2020. The content of photosynthetic pigments did not exceed 3 mg/g of dry matter against the background of prolonged absence of precipitation and maximum air temperature values of 34.638.1 ºC in July and August. At the same time the indicator was higher by 15.0-18.4 % against the background of the application of non-root treatments of trees. The gross content of the main nutrients in the leaves mainly in the middle part of the shoot in 2020 and 2021 exceeded the value of the indicator in comparison with the control variant in June, July and August. The potassium content in the leaves of the middle part of the shoot was higher by 0.8-45.8 % depending on the variety against the background of moisture deficiency in August. The derived level of seasonal functional activity of the apple tree and the nutrition mode corresponds to a higher yield class against the background of the action of the Maxifol Mega drug in comparison with the yield in the control variant: the Prikubanskoe apple variety (1852 trees/ha) 24.4 and 28.1 t/ha; the Idared apple variety (2469 trees/ha) 38.5 and 44.2 t/ha; t he Renet Kubansky apple variety (1852 trees/ha) 34.8 and 29.9 t/ha.

How to cite
Sergeeva N., Yaroshenko O., Kiseleva G., Shalyaho T. NUTRITION REGIME AND FUNCTIONAL STATE OF APPLE TREES IN THE COURSE OF APPLICATION OF SPECIAL AGROCHEMICALS OF SPECIFIC ACTION [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 137–154. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/12.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-137-154 (request date: 04.10.2022).
pdf
294 Кб
14 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 634.8
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-155-168
Keywords: WINE GRAPES, FOLIAR DRESSING, ORGANIC FERTILIZER, PRODUCTIVITY, CROPPING CAPACITY, QUALITY, BASE WINE

Annotation

In this work, organic fertilizer OFA with its effect on the yield, quality of grapes and base wines is examined. The aim of the research was to establish the effect of foliar dressing with OFA organic fertilizer at a hectare rate of 1 l/200 l of water per yield, quality of Cabernet-Sauvignon grapes, as well as physicochemical parameters of base wines. The studies were carried out in FSUE PJSC Massandra, Southern Coast of Crimea in a grafted, fruit-bearing vineyard, with a high-trunk bush training spiral cordon AZOS-1, planting pattern 3.0 x 1.25 m. The control is without treatment. Foliar treatment was carried out three times in phenological growth stages: Before flowering, Two weeks after flowering, Formation and growing of berries. Records and observations were carried out according to methods generally accepted in viticulture. Physicochemical profiles were determined using liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC20 Prominence). As a result of the research, it was found that foliar application of peat-based organic fertilizer in the vineyard is one of the most effective ways to increase the bunch weight, yield per bush and cropping capacity. This was reflected in an increase in the bunch weight by 28.3%, as well as yield per bush and cropping capacity by 38.1% and 37.5%, respectively. A positive response of plants on foliar dressing, reflected in an increase in potential photochemical activity of leaves by 11.6%, was established. At the same time, the content of sugars in berry juice decreased by 2.5 g/100 cm3 , while the values of titratable acids increased by 1.9 g/dm3 . The prevalence in acidic profile of malic acid over tartaric acid by 31.0% and 11.1% was established in experimental and control variants of base wines, respectively. It is noted that using of organic fertilizer OFA ensures obtaining of high quality base wines. Tasting assessment of base wines was 7.9 points, corresponding to the control sample assessment

How to cite
Yrdenko N., Beibulatov M., Tihomirova N., Buivol R. ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER OFA ON PRODUCTIVITY, FORMATION OF GRAPE AND BASE WINE QUALITY [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 155–168. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/13.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-155-168 (request date: 04.10.2022).

Phytosanitary condition of plants

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342 Кб
14 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 632.4.01/.08:575.174.015.3:57.083.182
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-169-182
Keywords: ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY, IN VITRO METHODS, ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA

Annotation

To develop protective measures, it is necessary to identify the most dangerous and new harmful objects, as well as to select drugs with high efficiency. However, it is not always possible to assess the effectiveness of inhibition of a particular fungus species by chemical preparations; in addition, many phytopathogens can acquire a certain level of resistance to fungicides. For this reason, it becomes necessary to study the effectiveness of drugs against individual species using laboratory methods using pure cultures of fungi. The in vitro method makes it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical preparations against pathogens in a fairly short time. However, there is the problem of the lack of a standardized method for assessing antifungal activity against economically important pathogens of agricultural crops. The studies were performed by two methods depending on the method of introducing the drug into the medium: by agar stab technique with a uniform introduction of the drug onto the surface of the nutrient medium and by inoculation the conidial suspension of the pathogen with a microbiological spatula when the drug is introduced on paper disks. The antifungal activity of chemicals against the fungus Alternaria alternata, the causative agent of apple fruit rot, varied in a wide range from no effect to strong, but in most variants of the experiment it was medium and the data obtained by the two methods of study were comparable. Comparison of these two methods showed a different degree of reproducibility of the results. So the most stable and repeatable results were given by the method with a uniform application of the working concentration of the drug to the surface of the nutrient medium and sowing by injection. In our study, the disk-diffusion method turned out to be more laborious, and the effects obtained by this method were not always characterized by an unambiguous interpretation and differed in repetitions, in comparison with the method in which the fungicide was applied directly to the agar plate, and the sowing was carried out by agar stab technique. Further optimization and standardization of this method is needed, including the amount of fungal inoculum applied and the thickness and evenness of the agar plate.

How to cite
Astapchuk I., Nasonov A., Yakuba G., Fomenko A. DETERMINATION OF THE ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF FUNGICIDES AGAINST ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA USING VARIOUS IN VITRO METHODS [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 169–182. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/14.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-169-182 (request date: 04.10.2022).
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350 Кб
10 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 634.8:579.2
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-183-192
Keywords: WILD GRAPES, EPIPHYTIC MICROFLORA, THE NUMBER OF MICROMYCETES

Annotation

The analysis of the epiphytic microflora of the leaves of wild grapes growing in the forest near the river and the mountain slope of the Crimean district was carried out. The research was carried out in 2020-2021. The number and structure of complexes of micromycetes associated with grape leaves were determined by swab test method of diluted suspension on a dense nutrient medium (PSA). The structure of the complex of micromycetes associated with leaves in grape plants growing in the floodplain of the river in the spring period was characterized by an abundance of yeast (61,3%), and in plants growing in the forest, mycelial, yeast and yeast-like fungi were approximately in equal proportions. By the beginning of autumn, mycelial fungi dominated in the structure of micromycetes of both ecotopes. The total number of microscopic fungi on the leaf surface of wild grapes changed under the influence of environmental conditions. The leaf apparatus of grape plants from the forest had a smaller number of micromycetes (on average for 2 years ranged from 1315.2...5094.7 thous. CFU /1gr dry matter), compared with plants growing in the floodplain of the river (on average for 2 years ranged from 5116.1 to 9279.7 thous. CFU /1gr dry matter). Thus, the total number of microflorae of grape leaves is affected by the humidity regime of the air and soil. Species of the genus Cladosporium sp. 44.4 % (May), Phomopsis sp. 65.8-78.2 % (July-September) were distinguished as dominant on the leaves of wild grapes of the forest area during the growing season. In the sample growing in the floodplain of the river, the dominant ones were: Phomopsis sp. (54.8 % in May; 82.4 % in September) and Cladosporium sp. (53.6 % in June; 35.3 % in July).

How to cite
Lukyanova A., Urchenko E., Gorbunov I. TO STUDY OF THE EPIPHYTIC FUNGAL MICROFLORA OF LEAVES OF WILD GRAPES OF THE NORTHERN BLACK SEA REGION (RUSSIA) [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 183–192. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/15.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-183-192 (request date: 04.10.2022).
pdf
278 Кб
9 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 634.5:631.52
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-193-201
Keywords: WALNUT, HYBRID FORMS, BREEDING, RESISTANCE, DISEASES, BACTERIOSIS

Annotation

The walnut (Juglans regia L.), belonging to the Juglandaceae family, is widely cultivated in all moderate and subtropical regions. In recent years, damage to walnuts by bacterial blight has been noted. This disease, known as bacteriosis, is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas jglandis (Pierce) Dowson. Bacteriosis causes the most severe damage in spring in wet and warm weather, which leads to a decrease in yield and quality of fruits. The purpose of the study is to identify the most resistant genotypes for use in breeding based on a long-term field assessment of resistance to bacteriosis of walnut hybrid forms. The objects of study are 21 promising hybrid forms of walnuts bred at the FSBSI NCFSCHVW. Control variant is variety Rodina. The garden was planted in 2014, the layout was 5 × 4 m. The studies were carried out on a natural agrobackground in a breeding garden in 2019-2021, in the central part of the Kuban horticulture zone of the Krasnodar region, on the basis of ZAO OPH Tsentralnoye of FSBSI NCFSCHVW Krasnodar. R&D was carried out according to generally accepted programs and methods. The degree of damage of walnut hybrid forms by bacteriosis was assessed using a scale from 0 to 5 points. It was revealed that bacteriosis annually damages walnut plants, and the degree of disease damage depends on the prevailing weather conditions. It was found that the most favorable years for the development of infection were 2019-2020. According to long-term data, hybrid forms of walnut resistant to bacteriosis have been identified: 17-2-35, 17-3-10, 17-3-12, 17-3-41, 17-3-44, 17-3-48, 17- 3-24, 17-3-27, 17-3-29, the degree of damage over the years of study of which varied from 1.1 to 2.0 points, the maximum did not exceed 2.0 points. Most of the hybrids isolated for resistance to bacteriosis were obtained from the Dachny family free pollination of the NCFSCHVW breeding, which has in its origin the Central Asian variety Ideal. The isolated forms of walnut are promising for further breeding for resistance to Xanthomonas jglandis (Pierce) Dowson.

How to cite
Artuhova L. STABILITY OF HYBRID FORMS OF WALNUT (JUGLANS REGIA L.) TO BACTERIOSIS IN CONDITIONS OF SOUTHERN GARDENING [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 193–201. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/16.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-193-201 (request date: 04.10.2022).

Processing of fruit and berries production and grapes

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192 Кб
13 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 663.252.3:548
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-202-214
Keywords: ORGANIC ACIDS, SATURATION TEMPERATURE, POTASSIUM BITARTRATE, CALCIUM TARTRATE

Annotation

Stabilization of wine means the removal of causes that provoke sediment formation in it, and giving stable transparency to the beverage during the warranty period using various technological operations. The aim of this work was to assess the impact of various technological methods at the stage of must (acidification with organic acids (citric, tartaric and malic), as well as must clarification with bentonite) on the tendency of base wines to crystalline haze and morphological features of crystalline sediment. The object of research was white dry base wines produced from the autochthonous grape variety Kokur Belyi, cultivated in the Republic of Crimea. It is established that the method of must acidification by adding citric acid provides a significant decrease in the temperature of saturation with calcium tartrate by 4.6 times compared to the control. Processing of must with bentonite also contributed to a decrease in the Tsat (aT) indicator by 33.5-44.9 %. It was shown that methods of must acidification with tartaric acid, as well as must clarification with bentonite, provided a stabilizing effect towards crystalline calcium haze for young wine to the end of experiment (3 months). The characterization of crystalline sediment by visual assessment and microscopy showed that potassium bitartrate was present in all tested samples. At the same time, the volume of sediment and morphological features of crystals were significantly different: in experimental variants with introduction of citric, tartaric and malic acids, as well as in the control sample, an abundance of small transparent crystals of potassium bitartrate, which resemble crushed glass in shape, was observed. Presence of large crystals was noted in samples with introduction of bentonite at the stage of must, as well as malic acid in the amount of 2 g/dm3 . The results obtained are intended to support preventive measures in the production of wines to ensure their stability to crystalline haze.

How to cite
Chervyak S., Anikina N., Gnilomedova N., Vesyutova A., Ermihiya M. THE EFFECT OF MUST PROCESSING ON THE STABILITY OF WINES TO CRYSTAL TURBID [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 202–214. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/17.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-202-214 (request date: 04.10.2022).
pdf
246 Кб
14 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 663.252:634.853
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-215-228
Keywords: GRAPE, INTRODUCED VARIETY, RED WINE, TECHNOLOGY, TASTING, ANALYSIS, ANTHOCYANES, AROMATIC SUBSTANCES

Annotation

The Nebbiolo variety introduced From Italy, Piedmont. It is characterized by increased acidity and a high level of tannin concentration. The Krasnodar region already has experience in growing grapes and producing wine from Italian varieties. In our study, we used grapes of Nebbiolo variety grown in the vineyards of the Sober Bash winery located near Krasnodar, harvested in 2021. It is noted that the terroir of the foothills of mount Sober Bash is similar to the terroir of Piedmont. As a result was found that the wine produced from the introduced Nebbiolo grape variety meets the requirements of GOST 32030-2013 in terms of organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters. The qualitative indicators of must and wine (wine material) from the Nebbiolo variety were determined. The content of peonidin reaches 50 mg/dm3 of the total amount, the rest consists of malvidin and cyanidin for Nebbiolo. Trisubstituted anthocyanins, delphinidin and petunidin, are present in small amounts. Aromatic substances were identified in the studied Nebbiolo wine materials. Analyzing the obtained data, it can be noted that the qualitative composition of aromatic acids in the wines of Piedmont and Krasnodar is identical, and their quantity varies depending on the grape clone and its place of growth. In terms of the amount of aromatic substances, the wine from the Nebbiolo introduced in Krasnodar and harvested in 2021, is not much inferior to the Piedmontese one, however, no obvious differences were found during the tasting assessment. Thus, the Krasnodar Nebbiolo fully corresponds to the quality indicators of the Italian variety grown within Piedmont. The tasting assessment confirmed the prospects of the Nebbiolo grape variety as a raw material for the production of high-quality red wines in the conditions of the Krasnodar region.

How to cite
Stakhovsky N., Oseledceva I., Stribizheva L. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTHOCYANIC AND AROMATIC PROFILES OF DRY RED WINES PRODUCED FROM THE NEBBIOLO VARIETY [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 215–228. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/18.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-215-228 (request date: 04.10.2022).
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461 Кб
15 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 663.241.048.004.12/.014
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-229-243
Keywords: WINES, CABERNET SAUVIGNON, DOSTOYNYI, SATSIMLER, PHENOLCARBOXYLIC ACIDS, QUERCETIN, ANTIOXIDANTS

Annotation

The results of studies on the change in the content of phenolcarboxylic acids and quercetin flavonol depending on the technology for the production of dry red wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Satsimler, Dostoynyi grape varieties grown in the Krasnodar region (Anapa zone) are considered. The methods of production of the studied wines differed in the technique of maceration of the pulp (infusion on the pulp, heat treatment of the pulp) and the introduction of various types of antioxidant agents (sulfur dioxide, preparation Tannin SR Terroir, ascorbic acid, Glutarom). It was found that the greatest accumulation of phenolcarboxylic acids of the benzoic and hydroxycinnamic series, quercetin flavonol was recorded in wine materials from the Dostoynyi grape variety. It is shown that the increase in different degrees of the content of phenolcarboxylic acids of the benzoic and hydroxycinnamic series of wine materials from the studied grape varieties was influenced by the additional introduction of Tannin SR Terroir at the stage of pulp preparation. The content of salicylic and benzoic acids was found in the range of 2.3-6.8 mg/dm3 and 2.3-6.0 mg/dm3 , respectively, in wine materials from Satsimler grape variety. The presence of these components, which have a strong preservative and antiseptic effect, can help protect wine materials from the development of microorganisms. It was established that for wine materials from grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon (scheme No. 1), Satsimler (scheme No. 2), Dostoynyi (scheme No. 1, No. 2), the introduction of a complex of antioxidants (sulfur dioxide, ascorbic acid, Glutar) contributed to an increase in the mass concentration of phenolcarboxylic acids and quercetin. We assume that the different content of phenolcarboxylic acids and quercetin, depending on the method of production and the introduction of antioxidant agents in wine materials in the studied red wines, can be due to both varietal characteristics and the production scheme.

How to cite
Antonenko O., Antonenko M., Guguchkina T. INFLUENCE OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY ON THE COMPOSITION OF PHENOLCARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN DRY RED WINES [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 229–243. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/19.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-229-243 (request date: 04.10.2022).
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595 Кб
13 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 663.253.2
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-244-256
Keywords: WINES, PHENOLIC SUBSTANCES, COLOR CHARACTERISTICS, COLOR SHADE, YELLOWNESS INDEX, CIE LAB SYSTEM

Annotation

The appearance of wine products with a protected geographical indication (PGI) and with a protected appellation of origin (PAO) gave rise to an urgent issue in the study of the characteristic indicators of the quality of wines depending on the region where the grapes grow. Establishing patterns of changes in various quality indicators of wines with PGI, PAO (color characteristics, cationic-anionic composition, organoleptic descriptor analysis, etc.) in terms of climatic conditions for growing grapes and geographical origin is relevant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color characteristics of dry white wines with a protected geographical indication. High-quality white wines with Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) produced in the territory of the geographical zones Kuban. Taman Peninsula and Kuban. Krymsk by the enterprises of OFO APF Fanagoria, OOO Kuban-Vino, OOO Golubitskoe Estate, AF Sauk-Dere, OOO Lefkadia. The studies were carried out using laboratory methods of analysis. Intensity (I), shade (N), yellowness (G) were calculated for the instrumental evaluation of the color of the studied white wines, and the CIE Lab color space was also used. The conducted studies have demonstrated differences in the instrumental assessment of color for all indicators of dry white wines with a protected geographical indication, depending on the zone Kuban. Taman Peninsula and Kuban. Krymsk. Differences in the values of such indicators as the intensity, tint and yellowness of the color within each group of samples, divided by geographical zones, were also observed depending on the content of the total amount of phenols. The use of the CIE Lab color space for assessing the color of wines demonstrated differences in the numerical values of the trichromatic coordinates L*, a*, b*, as well as in color expression.

How to cite
Yakimenko E., Antonenko M., Antonenko O., Guguchkina T. STUDY OF COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF WHITE WINES WITH GEOGRAPHICAL STATUS ON THE TERRITORY OF KUBAN [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 244–256. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/20.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-244-256 (request date: 04.10.2022).
pdf
277 Кб
16 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 664.037.8.1
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-257-272
Keywords: FORTUNELLA MARGARITA, FRUITS, SUGAR IMPREGNATION, DRYING, JAM, CANDIED FRUITS, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, TASTE QUALITIES

Annotation

The Fortunella margarita fruits ripen in Azerbaijan in December-February. They are stored fresh for a short time, but the period of their consumption can be significantly increased due to canning. Although jam and candied fruits can be made from kumquat fruits, considering that this is a very small fruit with a very thin and soft skin of a beautiful golden color and orange pulp, such canned food is rare here now. This may be due to some substances that are part of the kumquat, capable of highlighting their overall taste, introducing unusual nuances into it, which is what this study is aimed at finding out. The applied methodology was based on chemical and technological tests that were carried out in the laboratory of Fruit Processing and Storage Technologies of the Research Institute of Fruit and Tea Growing of the Ministry of Agriculture of Azerbaijan. Samples of jam and candied fruits were obtained from fresh kumquat, bought at the indoor market in Guba city, and their taste qualities were evaluated. It was found that both of these products have an attractive appearance and energy value, but also with a difference in taste: jam is a little bitter, and candied fruits devoid of this disadvantage. This is due to the fact that at the end of the candied fruit preparation process, the fruits are separated from the sugar syrup, in which the main part of the bitter substances is concentrated. Thus, the preparation of jam from this specific raw material requires intervention aimed at eliminating excessive bitterness.

How to cite
Hafizov G. PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE FRUITS OF THE FORTUNELLA MARGARITA (LOUR.) SWINGLE PLANT AND THEIR PROCESSED PRODUCTS [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 257–272. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/21.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-257-272 (request date: 04.10.2022).
pdf
240 Кб
13 с.
Date posted: 25.07.2022
UDC: 641.56 : 664.12
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-273-285
Keywords: FOOD FIBERS, PECTIN, HYDROLYSIS, EXTRACTION, BINDING ABILITY, LEAD, SECONDARY RAW MATERIAL

Annotation

The deterioration of the environmental situation necessitates the use in the human diet of ingredients that have increased detoxification activity against toxicants of various nature, including lead, one of the most toxic and dangerous heavy metals, extremely common in the environment. It seems relevant to use raw materials of plant origin to implement the task, including sugar beet pulp, a secondary product of sugar production, which contains a fairly large amount of dietary fiber. The purpose of this work is to improve the technological regimes for the production of dietary fiber from sugar beet pulp with a high sorption capacity for lead ions. Combined sorbents from sugar beet pulp were obtained according to the technology modified by the authors. The process of extracting dietary fiber from sugar beet pulp was studied using pre-treatment of raw materials with an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field. Technological regimes for the production of combined sorbents of plant origin with high detoxification activity with respect to lead ions have been experimentally established. The binding capacity of solutions of combined sorbents was assessed by the trilonometric method modified by the authors. Optimization of technological regimes with the help of mathematical programming methods has been carried out. The obtained optimal technological regimes make it possible to reduce the cost of energy resources spent on the technological process by reducing the duration of thermal hydrolysis-extraction. In comparison with the traditional method, the developed technological mode allows increasing the binding capacity of the final product with respect to lead ions by more than 20 %.

How to cite
Tamova M., Barashkina E., Zhuravlev R., Usatikov S., Nekhay B. IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL REGIMES OF THE PRODUCTION OF DIETARY FIBER FROM SUGAR BEET PULP [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2022. № 76(4). pp. 273–285. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/22/04/22.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2022-4-76-273-285 (request date: 04.10.2022).