Thematic electronic scientific online journal NCFSCHVW

Fruit growing
and viticulture of South Russia



Issue: 71(5)

Date posted: 17.09.21

Total articles: 26

Total authors: 74

DOI of issue: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71

pdf
939 Кб
22 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 634.1 : 338.43
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-1-22
Keywords: INTENSIFICATION, CRITERIA-SIGNS, FACTORS-SIGNS, EFFECTS, EFFICIENCY, BIOLOGIZATION, BIORESOURCE DEFORMATION, BIOLOGICAL METHODS AND MEANS

Annotation

The characteristic of the processes of intensification in industrial fruit growing is given, their goals are defined. The main technological shifts of the technological structure formed in the domestic fruit growing are presented. Based on the analysis of the development of technological structures, the predicted technological shifts in the near future, the characteristic features of promising technologies in fruit growing, their criteria and signs are presented. Systemically presented factors-signs of intensification of fruit growing. The article reflects the retrospective of the intensification of industrial fruit growing on the basis of breeding and introduction of low-growing rootstocks and differentiated technologies formed with their participation. The main directions of intensification that increase the biopotential of agrocenosis are graphically presented. The analysis of the negative influence of chemical and technogenic factors on agroecocenoses, leading to bioresource deformations in the biocenosis, soil and soil microbiota, microbio -, acaro - and entomosystems, is carried out. The necessity of restoring and developing the reproductive capabilities of agroecosystems, mainly by biological methods, is proved, which include: the development of populations of rhizosphere microorganisms in the soil biota, the expansion of the range of applied biological products created on the basis of effective strains of beneficial microorganisms, the widespread use of various forms and methods to increase plant immunity, including elicitor-type preparations.

How to cite
Egorov E., Shadrina Z., Kochyan G. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TOWARDS THE BIOLOGIZATION OF INTENSIFICATION PROCESSES (ON THE EXAMPLE OF INDUSTRIAL FRUIT GROWING) [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 1–22. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/01.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-1-22 (request date: 02.12.2022).

Genetic Resources, Cultivar, selection

pdf
461 Кб
10 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 634.1: 634.57.03
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-23-32
Keywords: APPLE, TREE, ROOTSTOCK, VARIETY, ROOTS, CROWN, HEIGHT, LENGTH

Annotation

According to the results of studying the parameters of the crown of Golden Delicious apple tree plantations on clone rootstocks M 9, MM-106 and K 104, it was found that the K 104 tree is in the middle position be-tween M 9 and MM-106 in terms of growth strength. The cross-sectional area of the eight-year-old tree trunk on it is 68,4 cm2 . In the control variant, this value is 63,4 and 73,6 cm2 , respectively. The height of the trees on K 104 is 0.2-0.3m higher than on M 9 and 0,2-0,3m less than on MM-106. The growth of trees depends on the functioning of the root system, the development of which, in turn, is due to a number of factors the strength of the growth of rootstocks and varieties grafted on them, the planting scheme and growing conditions. The purpose of the research was to establish the mutual influence of tree aboveground part growth indicators on different rootstocks and the size of their root system. In our studies, it was determined that the most developed root system was in trees on K 104 rootstock, where the total number of roots was 417 pcs., which is 41 pcs. higher than in trees on MM-106 and 87 pcs. more than on M 9. The main mass of roots, 58.3% is located in the soil horizons of the 40-60 cm, while the root system of trees on a weak-growing rootstock M-9 is characterized by occurrence, mainly in the upper soil layers up to 40 cm. In the total mass of the roots of all rootstocks, the fraction up to 1 mm thick is 87.6-95.8 %. The relationship between the size of the underground and the above-ground parts of the trees, depending on the rootstocks, was established: the area of the root system was 1.3-1.7 times larger than the area of the crown.

How to cite
Tankevich V. THE IMPACT OF APPLE TREE ROOT SYSTEM ARCHITECTONICS ON THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TREES ON VARIOUS ROOTSTOCKS IN THE CRIMEA [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 23–32. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/02.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-23-32 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
1532 Кб
14 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 631.52:634.232
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-33-46
Keywords: VARIETY, SWEET CHERRY, CLIMATE INDICATORS, ABIOTIC FACTORS, ADAPTIVITY, YIELD CAPACITY, PRODUCTIVITY

Annotation

This paper presents an analysis of changes in climatic factors (average annual air temperature, average annual precipitation, data provided by the meteorological station of Krasnodar) for a long-term study period (1961-2020) in the conditions of the Prikuban fruit zone of the Central Subzone. Analysis of climatic factors showed that the average annual temperature has increased by + 1.2 ºC over the past 30 years, and the average precipitation has decreased by 96.1 mm from 1991-2000. 18 sweet cherry varieties of local and foreign origin and their response to changes in the abiotic parameters of the climate were studied. 5 types of stress factors, most of which occur in the spring period, as well as their role in the formation of the generative potential of productivity of sweet cherry varieties, in particular for fruit buds, flowers, as well as yield capacity have been studied. The influence of spring frosts (in March, April) in the phenophase spreading of scales, extension of inflorescences, flowering on the death of structural elements of fruiting is shown. With this type of stress, the death of generative structures can range from 0 to 100 %, depending on the temperature factor and the phenophase of development. The yield capacity also varied significantly, with a slight damage to fruit buds of 15-30 % it was 13-45 kg/tree; with a damage of 30-100 % it was the minimum 0.0-4.5 kg/tree. Under abiotic stress in winter in the organic dormancy phenophase the death of fruiting elements was significant 90-95 %, and the yield capacity was correspondingly low 1.5-6.0 kg per tree. Local varieties of sweet cherries Alaya, Volshebnitsa, Mak, as well as introduced Krupnoplodnaya, which had better resistance to various types of stress, were identified.

How to cite
Dolya Y. CHANGE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE GENERATIVE POTENTIAL OF CHERRY VARIETIES [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 33–46. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/03.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-33-46 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
669 Кб
20 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 634.8
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-47-66
Keywords: GRAPES, VINEYARD, INTRODUCTION, VARIETY, ASSORTMENT, TECHNICAL VARIETIES, STABILITY, YIELD.

Annotation

The diversity of assortment and biological characteristics of grape varieties necessitates a careful approach to their selection in specific edaphoclimatic conditions. The significance of this approach has been relevant at all times, and in modern conditions it is significantly increasing, due to market relations dictating in which direction to develop, as well as an increase in the load of biotic environmental factors against the background of a decrease in the intensity of anthropogenic impact on the grape plant. Therefore, the optimization of the assortment when creating new vineyards remains the most important condition for ensuring high productivity, durability and economic efficiency of their cultivation. Grapes are a perennial crop that begins to fully fruiting in the fifth year after planting. In order to make sure the studied variety is suitable for specific conditions or not, at least another 5-6 years of observation are needed. Therefore, the experience of previous generations acquires special significance. History teaches not only not to repeat the mistakes of past years, but also which way to go forward. This article provides material devoted to the history of the formation of an assortment of industrial grapes in the territory of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the past. In terms of the area of vineyards and the gross yield of grapes, the republic was on the third place in the Russian Federation after the Republic of Dagestan and the Krasnodar region. The edaphoclimatic conditions are suitable here for the cultivation of grapes. Therefore, the experience gained by more than one generation of winegrowers and scientists should be the property of the younger generation.

How to cite
Zarmaev A. THE HISTORY OF FORMATION OF THE VARIETY OF TECHNICAL VARIETIES OF GRAPES IN THE CHECHEN REPUBLIC [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 47–66. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/04.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-47-66 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
620 Кб
13 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 634.85:631.524.02(470.61)
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-67-79
Keywords: GRAPES, COLLECTION, GEORGIAN NATIVE VARIETIES, YIELD CAPACITY, CHARACTERISTICS, TECHNOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

Annotation

The research was carried out in 2016-2019 at the Don ampelographic collection named after Ya.I. Potapenko (Novocherkassk, Rostov region). The subject of the study is eight native Georgian grapevine varieties: Adreuli shavi, Amlakhu, Vernakhi, Goruli mtsvane, Grdzelmtevana, Grubela, Mujuretuli, Nakutvneuli. Control varieties were Sibirkovyi and Krasnostop Zolotovskiy the Don native varieties. It was found that the studied varieties had high rates of bud break (70-80.3 %). The average cluster weight varied from 74 g (Mujuretuli) to 459 g (Adreuli shavi). Most of the studied varieties had a high average cluster weight (Adreuli shavi 459 g, Grubela 428 g). The estimated yield capacity was shown: more than 17 t/ha had Adreuli shavi and Nakutvneuli varieties, high yield capacity (1217 t/ha) Goruli mtsvane, average yield capacity (from 9 to 12 t/ha) Grubela, Grdzelmtevana, Amlakhu, Vernakhi and two control varieties. Mujuretuli variety had low yield capacity (3.6 t/ha). Characteristics of grape yield were following: very high sugar content of berry juice (over 23 g/100 cm3 ) in Krasnostop Zolotovskiy and Grdzelmtevana varieties; high sugar content (2123 g/100 cm3 ) in Amlakhu, Mujuretuli, Goruli mtsvane, Sibirkovyi varieties. All studied varieties have passed the technological assessment, dry table wines (white or red) were prepared. Wines from the control varieties received high tasting marks of 8.88.9 points (on a 10-point scale). At the level or slightly lower were the grades for the wines from the Grubela (8.8) and Goruli mtsvane (8.7 points) varieties. According to the results of the research, white technical grapevine varieties Grubela, Goruli mtsvane, Grdzelmtevana, and red technical variety Nakutvneuli were identified as promising in terms of a set of economically valuable features and high quality of wine products. These varieties are also recommended to be used in breeding for creating varieties with high technological properties for high-quality winemaking.

How to cite
Naumova L., Ganich V. VARIETAL STUDY OF GEORGIAN NATIVE GRAPEVINE VARIETIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE LOWER DON REGION [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 67–79. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/05.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-67-79 (request date: 02.12.2022).

Resource potential of the agricultural territories

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541 Кб
16 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 631.1:634.8
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-80-95
Keywords: INDUSTRIAL VITICULTURE, GRAPE YIELD, SALES PRICE, PRODUCTION COSTS, NET INCOME, PROFITABILITY OF PRODUCTION, ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

Annotation

The aim of the work is to evaluate the economic efficiency of grape production in the southern part of the coastal lowland of Dagestan. To determine the economic efficiency of grape production, the following indicators are taken into account: yield capacity, average sales price, cost of production, profit and profitability level. Calculations of the economic efficiency of research showed that it is determined primarily by the quality indicators of the yield, which is formed under the influence of growing conditions in a particular territory. It is revealed that in the production costs of the commercial farm unit, the largest share is occupied by remuneration and the maintenance of fixed-capital assets. The cost of grape production in 2010-2014 ranged from 11014 to 12485 thousand rubles and for the period 2016-2020 it ranged from 12396 to 18117 thousand rubles. It is established that the greatest increase in expenses in the commercial farm unit is associated with the use of energy resources, the purchase of spare parts, repair materials, fuel and lubricants, as well as with the implementation of protective measures against grape pests and diseases. Meanwhile, the costs associated with the application of organic and mineral fertilizers have been decreased. The analysis of the economic efficiency of individual industries shows that animal farming in a specialized winegrowing commercial farm unit should be of an auxiliary nature for the needs of domestic consumption. It is determined that the main factor determining the level of sustainability and efficiency of the industry is the transition to a new more intensive level of production, reducing of labor costs and material resources per unit of production, while increasing the yield of grape plantations.

How to cite
Zagirov N., Akhmedov F. AGROECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF ADAPTIVE LANDSCAPE WINEGROWING IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SAMUR AND GULGERYCHAY RIVER DELTAS [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 80–95. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/06.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-80-95 (request date: 02.12.2022).

Breeding and production of planting material

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555 Кб
20 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 635:631.532:58.084.1
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-96-115
Keywords: HORTICULTURAL CROPS, CLONAL MICROPROPAGATION, DESINFECTION, DIAGNOSTICS, GENETIC STABILITYBILITY

Annotation

The issue of obtaining planting material for fruit crops, free from pathogens, including viruses and phytoplasma, is of high relevance at the present time. The use of modern methods of biotechnology and molecular genetics is an important element in the production of improved planting material, since it allows not only to obtain plants in the culture of meristems in vitro and to produce their microclonal propagation, but also allows control the presence of viral and phytoplasmic pathogens, the identification of which by external symptoms can be difficult due to the presence of a latent form of disease. The article presents the results of the implementation of complex studies on microclonal reproduction of various crops of fruit crops, as well as an analysis of modern scientific literature on this topic. In addition, the results of molecular genetic studies in the part of the analysis of the genetic stability of plants obtained in vitro and the identification of viruses are presented. It was noted that at all stages of micropropagation, including the use of a culture of meristems, it is often necessary to develop variety-specific protocols. Optimal protocols for sterilization of explants of pome and stone fruit cultures using disinfecting tablets "OKA-TAB" and antimicrobial preparation BIO-PAK have been developed. The dependence of the intensity of the release of phenolic compounds by explants and their further necrotization upon introduction into culture in vitro on the phases of development and the age of donor plants was revealed. The optimal concentrations of nutrient media components, as well as phytohormones, have been established for a number of varieties and rootstocks of pome and stone fruit crops of domestic breeding. As part of the analysis of the genetic stability of plants obtained under in vitro conditions, ISSR and IRAP DNA markers have been identified that are promising for use for these purposes on apple stocks (ISSR: UBC 811, UBC 841 and UBC 843; IRAP: Cass 1 and ass 2). When analyzing the genetic stability of the rootstocks of large-stone cultures using ISSR DNA markers, the identity of the DNA profiles was revealed, which testifies to the preservation of genetic stability for this rootstock using the developed micropropagation protocols. Based on the use of a complex of biotechnological and molecular genetic methods, genetically homogeneous rootstocks of stone fruit cultures, free from the virus pox disease of plum, were obtained. These plants, after testing for other viruses of stone crops and in the absence of such, will be transferred to the category of candidates for initial and, after retesting, can be transferred to the category of initial plants and serve as a basis for further mass production of virus-free rootstocks.

How to cite
Suprun I., Winter M., Lobodina E., Al-Nakib E., Avakimyan A., Fedorovich S. KEY ISSUES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN REPRODUCTION AND IMPROVEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 96–115. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/07.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-96-115 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
541 Кб
15 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 632.3
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-116-130
Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY, NURSERY, METHODS, MICRO-REPRODUCTION, IN VITRO, MERISTEM CULTURE, SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

Annotation

Biotechnology is introducing into agricultural practice at a rapid pace. The biotechnological methods used play an important role in the cultivation of agricultural, horticultural and ornamental plants, which improve their agronomic performance. Biotechnological methods are highly effective because plant cells are totipotent, which means that every cell has the genetic information and cellular machinery needed to create an entire organism. Thus, with the help of tissue culture technology, it is possible to obtain a large number of plants that are genetically identical to the parent, as well as to each other. Plant tissue culture technology is widely used for large-scale plant propagation. In addition to being used as a research tool, plant tissue culture techniques have in recent years acquired important industrial significance in the fields of plant propagation, disease elimination, plant improvement, and the production of secondary metabolites. Small pieces of tissue (called explants) can be used to produce hundreds or thousands of plants in a continuous process. One explant can be propagated to several thousand plants in a relatively short period of time and under controlled conditions, regardless of the season and weather, on a year-round basis. The article provides a brief overview of the most important biotechnological methods used, such as micropropagation, meristem culture, somatic embryogenesis, somaclonal variation, in vitro selection, protoplast culture and somatic hybridization. Based on the analysis of literature data, the assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of each biotechnological method is made, and how the considered biotechnological methods can affect the nursery industry and change the growing systems in nurseries.

How to cite
Karpushina M., Suprun I., Lobodina E. APLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL METHODS IN THE NURSERY INDUSTRY [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 116–130. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/08.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-116-130 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
879 Кб
16 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 634.2 : 631.541
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-131-146
Keywords: APRICOT, PEACH, GRAFT-ROOTSTOCK COMBINATION, COMPATIBILITY, RNA AND DNA CONTENT, CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT, PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS, STARCH, GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, BELARUS

Annotation

Apricot and peach are very valuable food products, especially apricot, which contains not only sugars, but also a large amount of carotene (up to 16 mg/100 g), phosphorus 23 mg/kg and potassium 259 mg/kg. The fruit contains many phenolic compounds (ferulic, n-coumaric, chlorogenic, caffeic and other acids), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin, isoquercitrin and others), vitamins A, B1, B2, PP, C, catechins, aromatic components. The stone contains amino acids, the enzyme emulsin, fatty oils, consisting of linoleic, oleic acids, glycerides. At the same time, there are practically no industrial plantings of these crops in Belarus. And one of the reasons is the lack of planting material that can guarantee the producers a stable yield. It is required to develop methods for express assessment of the compatibility of rootstocks and grafts. The article presents the results of a study of 24 graft-rootstock combinations of apricot and peach in a nursery (2019-2020) for a number of biochemical parameters characterizing the physiological state of plants and, as a consequence, the compatibility of the rootstock and graft at the stage of growing planting material in a fruit nursery. The content of RNA and DNA (using a set of reagents ArtRNAminiSpin) and their ratio for 4 clonal rootstocks and 24 graft-rootstock combinations of peach and apricot were determined, on the basis of which the coefficients of compatibility were calculated, which made it possible to distinguish three groups: good compatibility; medium compatibility; poor compatibility. The change in the content of chlorophyll and phenolic compounds in dynamics, the content of starch in the roots of annual seedlings, which is also an indicator of the interaction of graft-rootstock combinations, has been established.

How to cite
Samus V., Kuharchik K., Levshunov V., Drabudko N., Ostapchuk I. BIOCHEMICAL INDICATORS CHARACTERIZING THE COMPATIBILITY OF GRAFT-ROOTSTOCK COMBINATIONS OF PEACH AND APRICOT IN THE NURSERY [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 131–146. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/09.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-131-146 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
269 Кб
14 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 634.2: 631.53:631.811.98
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-147-160
Keywords: ADAPTIVE ROOTSTOCKS OF STONE FRUITS, THE METHOD OF ROOTING WITH GREEN CUTTINGS, GROWTH-CORRECTING PREPARATIONS, BIOTECHNOLOGY

Annotation

The demand for the development of universal technologies by the method of green cuttings increases significantly in the production of basic mother plantings, i.e. when creating high quality planting material. Green propagation is one of the fastest and relatively cheap in relation to the in vitro method of propagation of plants from mother plantings of the original category. It is also necessary in the production of seedlings for intensive planting of hybrids, introduced material of interest. The relevance of identifying adaptive rootstocks and effective technologies makes it necessary to carry out joint research work with other institutions, increasing the evidence base and the accuracy of research, while significantly reducing the research time. The value of the direction lies in the possibility of isolating plants with a wide biopotential, which is especially valuable when stressful situations for stone fruit crops increase, especially in the spring-summer period. As a result of studies on shoot-forming ability, the most adaptive rootstocks were identified in different growing conditions VSL-2 (KESS VIR breeding), Gisela 5 (Germany), 3-107, AI 1, 3-20 (NCFSCHVW breeding), AI-5 BD, AI-1 BD (NCFSCHVW and RUE Institute of Fruit Growing breeding). All new forms of rootstocks were characterized by resistance to coccomycosis. Rootstocks with a short period of callus formation were noted. It was found that in the conditions of the south of Russia this indicator depended on the preparations used to increase rhizogenesis, in Belarus conditions on the genotypes of the rootstocks. When propagating by green cuttings, a high yield of rooting was noted under the conditions of Belarus in rootstocks AI 1, AI-1 BD (100 %), VSL-2, AI-74 BD, AI-5 BD (85.2-91.2 %), under conditions of elevated temperatures in the south of Russia in forms 3-20 and AI-5 BD, VSL-2, AI-1 BD, (67-98 %). According to the joint data, the AI-1 DB rootstock was identified for all the studied parameters.

How to cite
Kuznetsova A., Drigina A., Samus V., Drabudko N. STUDYING THE INFLUENCE OF ROOTSTOCKS GENOTYPES AND NEW GROWTH-CORRECTING PREPARATIONS ON THE YIELD OF SWEET CHERRY AND CHERRY PLANTING MATERIAL [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 147–160. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/10.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-147-160 (request date: 02.12.2022).

Physiology and biochemistry of plants

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482 Кб
10 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 634.13 : 581.1 (470.621)
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-161-170
Keywords: PEAR, VARIETIES, SPECIES, WATER REGIME, DROUGHT RESISTANCE

Annotation

In the southern regions of Russia, during the active growing season of pears, almost every year there is an impact of drought, heat, dry winds, which affects their water status, growth, productivity and adaptation. When selecting varieties for optimal placement, it is necessary to take into account their adaptability to dry growing conditions. From the collections of the Maykop experimental station VIR, more than 120 samples of pears were included in experiments to study the drought resistance of plants: 59 varieties, including 43 varieties of European origin and 16 East Asian, 26 species, 38 ecological forms of the Caucasian pear. Field assessment of the plant condition was carried out visually after prolonged exposure to stress. In parallel, a laboratory method of leaf wilting was used, which allows judging the degree of endurance of various samples to the dehydration factor and the relative drought resistance of plants by the parameters of the water regime. On the basis of adaptability and indicators of the water regime, pear samples with increased resistance of leaves to dehydration are identified, which can be recommended for cultivation in the foothill zone of the Republic of Adygea in areas with limited water supply. These are such European varieties as Bessemyanka, Borup, Williams, Krasnodarskaya letnyaya and Lastochka, whose leaves lost only 30-40 % of water in 6 hours of dehydration. Under the same conditions, the lowest water losses 42-46%) were observed in the varieties Minueli, Olga and Pinli from East Asian pears. From the MES VIR species collection, P. caucasica Fed., P. elaeagnifolia Pall., P. nivalis Jacq., P. salicifolia Pall., P. ussuriensis Maxim. may be of interest for breeding for drought resistance.

How to cite
Semenova L., Bandurko I., Dobrenkov E. RESISTANCE OF PEAR (PYRUS L.) TO DEHYDRATION DURING DRY PERIODS OF VEGETATION OF THE FOOTHILL ZONE OF THE REPUBLIC OF ADYGEA [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 161–170. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/11.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-161-170 (request date: 02.12.2022).

General agrotechnics (systems, technology)

pdf
287 Кб
10 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 634.8 : 631.52
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-171-180
Keywords: GRAPES, AMBIENT, PHENOTYPE, MODIFICATION VARIABILITY, NORM OF REACTION

Annotation

Modification changes in the phenotype and the norm of reaction in the technical grape variety Vydvizhenec under the influence of natural conditions against the background of traditional and biological ways of soil management have been established. The studies were carried out in the agro-ecological conditions of the moderate continental climate of the south of Russia using modern methods of field research. The average annual air temperature at the research site was 9.7 ºC. During the growing season (May-September) the temperature was 19.9 º, during the period of active growth of grape berries (II. June-III. August) 22.5 º, the maximum rose to plus 39.3 º, the minimum in the wintering period of grapes dropped to minus 26.7 º. The annual temperature range was 54.2 ºC. The drop in air temperature within the day during the growing season was 10.7 degrees Celsius, the maximum 17.7 º. The annual amount of atmospheric precipitation varied from 433 to 866 mm, with a norm of 620 mm. Variations in weather conditions were accompanied by modification variability in the number of clusters, average cluster weight, and grape yield. According to the correlation analysis, the strongest influence was exerted by the minimum air temperature (January-February) on the number of clusters (r = 0.640.41) and the average cluster mass (r = -0.67-0.52), the average temperature in the previous year by the number of clusters (r = 0.650.41), the average annual temperature per cluster weight (r = -0.47-0.35). Atmospheric precipitation as a whole for the year influenced the mass of the cluster (r = -0.38-0.30). The influence of weather conditions on the grape yield was weak. The reaction norm of the number of clusters was equal 23 against the background of black fallow, 25 natural grassing-down and 30 pcs/bush sowing of sour dock, the average weight of the cluster, respectively, 129, 90 and 103 g, the grape yield 5.79; 5,52 and 6,00 kg/bush.

How to cite
Petrov V. MODIFICATION CHANGES IN THE PHENOTYPE OF VYDVIZHENEC GRAPE VARIETY UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF NATURAL CONDITIONS ON THE BACKGROUND OF TRADITIONAL AND BIOLOGICAL WAYS OF SOIL MANAGMENT [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 171–180. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/12.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-171-180 (request date: 02.12.2022).

Quality Management

pdf
156 Кб
9 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 663.253
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-181-189
Keywords: GRAPE VARIETY, WHITE WINE, BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WINES, ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES, TASTING EVALUATION

Annotation

Among a number of natural factors that ensure the development of the grapevine and predetermine the quality of wine, the soil belongs to one of the first places, since the soil for the grape plant is an important part of the habitat. The type of soil on which the vineyard grows, as well as its soil-forming rock, enriched with primary minerals and a large number of trace elements, are important. The soil contributes such substances to the plant, which have a particular impact on the quality and individual characteristics of the products obtained from grapes. The soil determines the fullness, finesse and bouquet, and often the type of wine itself. The winemaker only assists in the smooth flow of the process and the identification of those qualities which are already present in the must. The research objects were the must and the wines from the grape variety Flower, grown on the following types of soils: carbonate chernozems (B-1), sandy soils (B-2), chestnut soils (B-3). The research was carried out on the basis of the laboratory of quality control of grape and wine products and of ARRIV&W, a branch of FSBSI FRASC. The research revealed the influence of different types of soils on the physico-chemical parameters of musts and wines, in particular on the content of titratable acids, as well as phenolic and nitrogenous substances, which play an important role in the formation of organoleptic properties of wines. According to the organoleptic analysis, the highest tasting score (8.7 points) was given to a wine sample made from grapes grown on chestnut soils, which had the most complete and harmonious taste with light nutmeg and floral tones in the aroma.

How to cite
Kalmykova N., Kalmykova E., Gaponova T. PECULIARITIES OF QUALITATIVE INDICATORS OF DRY WHITE WINE FROM THE TSVETOCHNYI GRAPE VARIETY CULTIVATED ON DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOILS [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 181–189. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/13.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-181-189 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
220 Кб
17 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 663.2; 634.8
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-190-206
Keywords: GRAPES, GRAPE GROWING CULTURE, LOAD NORM, WINE COMPOSITION, WINE QUALITY, ORGANOLEPTIC ANALYSIS

Annotation

At the moment, there is no systemic scientific knowledge about the mechanisms of the influence of the grafted culture on the quantitative and qualitative indicators of grapes and wine production. Establishing the regularities of the influence of various norms of the grape bush load in own-rooted and grafted culture on the grape quality, as well as the aesthetic and biological value of wine products in conditions of terroir changing biotic properties, is very relevant at the current stage of development of the wine-making industry in Russia. The objects of research were grapes and wine material of the Krasnostop AZOS variety in grafted and own-rooted culture with variants of different shoot load on the bush. The experiment of studying the influence of various agrotechnical methods on the productivity of a grape plant and the quality of wine material was laid in the Anapo-Taman climatic zone of the Krasnodar region of Russia. The highest yield of the Krasnostop AZOS variety during the years of the study was obtained in the variant of own-rooted grape growing with its load of 36-40 shoots per bush. In our studies, there is a tendency to an in-crease in grape sugar content and a maintenance of the titratable acidity when the Krasnostop AZOS variety is growing on vineyards in own-rooted culture. The most optimal ratio of sugar content and titratable acidity in the experiment was possessed by grapes from a variant of own-rooted culture with a load of 36-40 shoots per bush the glucoacedometric indicator was 4.36. In the studied variants, the largest number of phenolic substances was found in wine material from own-rooted grapes with a load of 36-40 shoots per bush 4130 mg/dm3 . This had a positive effect on the organoleptic evaluation of this sample. The largest total amoun of biologically active substances in the studied samples was found in wine materials from grapes in a grafted culture (134.9-147.9 mg/dm3 ). During the years of study, wine materials from grapes of own-rooted culture proved to be of the highest quality. This advantage over the grafted crop was traced in all variants of rationing the shoot load of grape bushes.

How to cite
Dergunov A., Lukyanova A. DEPENDENCE OF WINE QUALITY ON ABIOTIC FACTORS OF CULTIVATION OF KRASNOSTOP AZOS GRAPE VARIETY [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 190–206. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/14.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-190-206 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
1457 Кб
12 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 634.1-519.248-004.92
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-207-218
Keywords: HEAT MAP, CLUSTER ANALYSIS, EXPERT ASSESSMENT, TASTING

Annotation

The crops products taste is the main characteristic that determines its appeal to consumers. Therefore, at different stages of the breeding process, it is important to have a competent tasting procedure, results of which require statistical analysis and graphics. The article proposes to use cluster heat maps (HM) to visualize the experts agreement when tasting products. The material for the study was questionnaires obtained in 2020 during the assessments of 10 varieties of blue honeysuckle Lonicera caerulea L. 12 experts were involved in the tasting, who evaluated the sensory characteristics of berries, including taste, on a five-point scale. Statistical analysis of the obtained data included the calculation of the Kendalls coefficient of concordance W, the average scores, as well as the construction of a cluster HM. To group the columns and rows of the data matrix in the CH, we applied hierarchical cluster analysis using Spearman's correlation coefficient as a measure of similarity, and Ward's method as an agglomerative algorithm. Calculations were carried out in the DescTool and pheatmap packages of the statistical environment R. As a result, it was found that the agreement of experts in the ranking of varieties was statistically significant (P < 0.001), but weak: W=0.374. Therefore, the average scores for varieties do not contain all the information and a heatmap was built to expand it. This article describes a statistical standardization procedure for color-coding cells of HM. Based on the heatmaps analysis, the individual characteristics of the honeysuckle variety and the individual taste of experts, the grouping of varieties and the grouping of experts and/or consumers are discussed. It is concluded that the cluster heatmap is a useful tool combining statistical and graphical techniques that is useful even in the absence of expert agreement.

How to cite
Nokhrin D., Ufimtseva L., Lezin M. USE OF HEAT MAPS TO VISUALIZE AN EXPERT EVALUATION OF PRODUCT TASTE [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 207–218. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/15.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-207-218 (request date: 02.12.2022).

Phytosanitary condition of plants

pdf
690 Кб
15 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 632.4.01/.08:575.174.015.3:57.083.182
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-219-233
Keywords: APPLE TREE, ROT APPLE CORE, ROOT ROT, BIOLOGICAL DRUGS, FUSARIUM

Annotation

Over the past 15 years, the prevalence of pathogens of the genus Fusarium has increased in the gardens of the Krasnodar region, which are found both in the root rot pathocomplex and in the apple core rot pathocomplex. At present, much attention is paid to the biological method of plant protection, one of the directions of which is the use of microbiological drugs. In this connection, we studied the antifungal activity of microbiological preparations Rizoplan, Liq., Alirin B, WP, Fitosporin-M, P, Vitaplan, WP, registered on an apple tree to control scab, powdery mildew, moniliosis, as well as promising in relation to pathogens of rot roots and cores of apple fruits from the genus Fusarium Trichocin, WP and Biocomposite, Liq. As a result of the study of the antifungal activity of microbiological drugs against fungi of the genus Fusarium, causative agents of rot of roots and fruits of the apple tree, both weak and very strong mycoparasitism were noted, but in most variants of the experiment, competition for the area of nutrition prevailed. Under the influence of some drugs, the shape, edge and color of the fungus colony changed. In general, for the entire sample of pathogens, the best bioagents were the antagonists of the drug Trichocin, WP, which suppressed all five strains with BE 50-90 % and showed hyperparasitism in one strain, as well as the drug Alirin B, Liq, which inhibited the growth of three strains with BE 56 -85 %, showing antibiosis or fungistatic antibiotic antagonism with the formation of a sterile zone.

How to cite
Astapchuk I., Yakuba G., Nasonov A. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF BIOLOGIES IN RELATION TO PATHOGENS OF ROOT ROT AND THE CORE OF APPLE FRUITS FROM THE GENUS FUSARIUM LINK [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 219–233. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/16.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-219-233 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
327 Кб
13 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 632.7:634.11 (471.63)
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-234-246
Keywords: CENOSES, PHYTOPHAGES, PERENNIALCROPS, SCALE INSECTS, ABUNDANCE, DISTRIBUTION

Annotation

At present, the influence of invasive species has increased significantly in the cenoses of fruit and ornamental plants. Harmful coccids (scale insects) easily invade with seedlings and cuttings of fruit and ornamental crops imported into our country. Once in a new region, they quickly master due to their high fertility and good protection from the effects of adverse external conditions. In recent decades, the rates of the invasion process have accelerated everywhere; over the previous 80 years, about 100 foreign species of herbivorous insects settled on the territory of the former USSR, a significant part of them are classified as harmful and quarantine species, of which 57 species have clear signs of harmfulness. Every year, new species of phytophages are identified, which lead to the death of host plants and destabilization of the phytosanitary situation in artificial and natural ecosystems. Therefore, at present, it is relevant to study the features of the invasive process of pests of fruit and ornamental crops in order to develop protective measures against new pests. Monitoring of perennial plantings of ornamental and fruit crops in the Kuban zone of the central subzone of Krasnodar region revealed damage by tortoise scales: Chinese wax scale (Ceroplastes sinensis Guer) and Florida wax scale (Ceroplastes floridensis Comst). This region can become a potential habitat for the development and distribution of the above species of phytophages, since the territory has the presence of suitable climatic and ecological conditions under which these pests can settle and develop. When assessing the potential for invasiveness of new species of coccids, in connection with their adaptation in the Krasnodar region, the facts of stepwise adaptation in different types of cenoses should be considered. Solving the problem of preventing biological invasions is one of the most important tasks of these studies, and in this regard, the development of a set of preventive measures is relevant.

How to cite
Prah S., Podgornaya M., Tyshchenko E. INVASIVE SPECIES OF COCCIDS (HOMOPTERE, COCCOIDAE) OF THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA, THEIR HARMFULNESS AND DISTRIBUTION [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 234–246. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/17.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-234-246 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
613 Кб
9 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 634.23: 632.937
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-247-255
Keywords: BACTERIAL TOXINS, PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE, ZIRCON, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY

Annotation

It is necessary to use measures aimed at increasing the resistance of the host infection in combination with measures to weaken parasites in management of phytopathogenic microorganisms. The realization of the maximum productivity of plants is achieved with a high level of their resistance to adverse abiotic and biotic factors. This can be done with the use of growth regulators. Preference is given to preparation that meet the requirements of environmental safety, which include Zircon. The research was made in the scientific fundamental research laboratory "Biophotonics" of the Michurinsky State Agrarian University and the I. V. Michurin Federal Research Center. A solution of toxic metabolites of the Pseudomonas syringae van Hall bacterium was obtained by culturing it on a liquid nutrient potato-glucose medium. The working solution of the drug Zircon was prepared according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Experimental variants: leaves placed in water without treatment with Zircon (control variant); leaves in a 10 % solution of toxic metabolites of bacteria without treatment with Zircon; leaves in a 10 % solution of toxic metabolites of bacteria treated with Zircon. Diagnostics of the functional state of photosynthetic cherry tissues was performed non-destructively on a portable chlorophyll fluorimeter PAM-Junior. On the 10th day after the experiment was initiated, the activity of photosynthetic cherry leaf tissues in the variant using toxic metabolites was 0.507 cu, which is 16.9 % lower than the control value (0.610 cu). At the same time, joint treatment with Zircon and a solution of bacterial metabolites contributed to an increase in this indicator by 33.7% compared to the variant where only toxin was used and by 11.1% compared to the control. Thus, this preparation helps to increase the activity of photosynthetic tissues and the resistance of the host plant to the action of toxic metabolites of the bacterium.

How to cite
Maslova M. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF THE DRUG ZIRCON ON THE RESISTANCE OF CHERRY TISSUES TO TOXINS OF THE BACTERIUM PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 247–255. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/18.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-247-255 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
571 Кб
10 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 632.937:632.935.4
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-256-265
Keywords: BIOPREPARATION, TRICHODERMA, LASER STIMULATION

Annotation

Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are known as antagonists of phytopathogens; therefore, they are used as a basis for a number of biological plant protection drugs. However, the low rate of reproduction and colonization of these fungi and incomplete elimination of pathogens are the main problems for their widespread introduction into agricultural production. One of the promising areas of stimulation of micromycetes is irradiation with coherent light. This will make it possible to manage their various physiological processes, including the growth, development and synthesis of producers. A comparative study of the effectiveness of the use of helium-neon and semiconductor lasers for the treatment of the fungus T. lignorum showed that at more effective exposure times (240 s for helium-neon, 60 and 240 s for semiconductor lasers), the maximum growth and development of mycelium was observed (5 points). Taking into account that the growth of fungal colonies in the control was estimated at 2,66 points, laser stimulation was 87,9%. In this case, the use of semiconductor and helium-neon lasers turned out to be equally effective, the differences in these variants of the experiment are insignificant and are within the standard error of the mean value. An increase in the antifungal activity of T. harzianum against the fungus A. alternata after using a semiconductor laser to treat a biocontrol agent, where no pathogen growth was observed. At the same time, in the control (without irradiation), the growth of the tester was 1,59 points. The obtained data indicate a positive effect of coherent light on the effectiveness of protective biopreparations containing fungi of the genus Trichoderma by increasing their physiological activity.

How to cite
Grosheva E., Maslova M., Budagovsky A., Budagovskaya O. THE EFFECT OF LASER IRRADIATION ON THE ACTIVITY OF FUNGI GENUS TRICHODERMA [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 256–265. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/19.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-256-265 (request date: 02.12.2022).

Manage environmental and food safety

pdf
706 Кб
12 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 581.192
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-266-277
Keywords: TECHNOLOGY, DYE, ONION, POMACE, GRAPES, ANTHOCYANES

Annotation

A literature review of the main methods for the production of dyes from natural raw materials is carried out, the features of the technology are discussed. The study of the chemical composition was carried out using known chemical methods, the ionic composition was studied using capillary electrophoresis. The main attention is paid to the methods of obtaining natural dyes from onion husks and red pomace of technical grape varieties. The results of the study of the chemical composition, properties of extracts and test results in the production of food products are shown. It is noted that the industrial technology for obtaining dyes from secondary resources of colored food plant materials consists of the following main operations: drying the pomace or by-products during the canning of raw materials, extraction of dyes with an aqueous solution with the addition of various modifiers and subsequent concentration of the extract. The paper shows options for extracting biologically active components from onion husks with water, from dry and wet pomace of red grape varieties by acidified aqueous solutions, sugar syrup, including modified acids. The highest content of biologically active substances and anthocyanins was found in the extract from dry grape pomace of Cabernet-Sauvignon variety, then in cryo-must from the Merlot variety. Sugar syrup extracts were less saturated and more difficult to concentrate. It was found that the addition of acidic modifiers to 50% sugar syrup led to a decrease in the pH of the solution and contributed to an increase in the extraction of anthocyanins when dosing citric acid 5 times more control (without modifiers), more than 4 times for boric acid and approximately 3 times higher for hydrochloric and acetic acids. The content of water-soluble dry matter, excluding sucrose, in the obtained extracts was 3.3 0.25 %. Natural dyes obtained in this way can be used in various branches of the food industry.

How to cite
Guguchkina T., Lepeshkina S., Popov V. TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF OBTAINING AND USING NATURAL DYES [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 266–277. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/20.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-266-277 (request date: 02.12.2022).

Processing of fruit and berries production and grapes

pdf
707 Кб
14 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 663.05
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-278-291
Keywords: SECONDARY PLANT RESOURCES, TOMATO EXTRACT, TECHNOLOGY, LABORATORY ANIMALS, BIOLOGICAL EFFECT, ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES, HEPATOPROTECTIVE PROPERTIES

Annotation

The results of the influence of the features of the processing technology of secondary plant resources obtained in experiments on laboratory animals are presented tomato pomace on the functional properties of the obtained food supplement. Special pretreatment of pomace when obtaining sample No. 2 of the supplement can significantly reduce the loss of thermolabile biologically active substances exhibiting antioxidant properties, in comparison with sample No. 1. It is shown that the sample No. 2 of the supplement has a greater effect on the average daily weight gain of animals in comparison with the sample No. 1, which confirms the higher efficiency of its biological action. In addition, it was found that the sample No. 2 of the supplement in comparison with the sample No. 1 has a more effective influence on the metabolism of proteins (by 10.3%) and the metabolism of carbohydrates (by 12.0%) in the body of animals. The obtained data of changes in the level of liver enzymes in the blood of animals of the experimental groups in comparison with the control indicate a higher efficiency of the manifestation of the hepatoprotective properties of the sample No. 2 of the supplement in comparison with the sample No. 1. The influence of the supplement samples on the change in the content of peroxidation products in the blood of animals was established. It has been shown that in the blood of animals that received sample No. 2 of the supplement, the degree of decrease in the content of lipid peroxidation products on the 30th day of the experiment was significantly higher compared to these indicators of the blood of animals that received sample No. 1 of the supplement, namely, the content of malondialdehyde decreased by 12, 7 %, diene conjugates by 22.1%, ketodienes by 10.1%. The obtained data indicate that sample No. 2 of the supplement exhibits antioxidant properties to a greater extent in comparison with sample No. 1. Thus, a positive influence of the peculiarities of the technology for processing secondary resources on the functional properties of the obtained food supplement has been established.

How to cite
Viktorova E., Lisovaya E., Velikanova E., Kornen N., Kuzminova E., Semenenko M. INFLUENCE OF FEATURES OF SECONDARY PLANT RESOURCES PROCESSING ON THE FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF THE OBTAINED FOOD SUPPLEMENT [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 278–291. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/21.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-278-291 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
554 Кб
12 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 663.253.2
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-292-303
Keywords: MALIC ACID, GRAPE MUST, GRASSING-DOWN, FERTILIZERS, GROWTH REGULATORS, LOAD

Annotation

For production of high-quality wines it is necessary to manage and control malic acid in must and wine material. The aim of the research is to get new knowledge about accumulation of malic acid in grape berries (grape must) depending on agricultural practices in case of prediction of necessary technological approach to work with must and table wine materials obtained from it during grape berries processing. The results are presented for 3 years studies of accumulation of malic acid in grape must. Studies have been conducted on the influence of various agricultural practices soil management in row-spacing, application of mineral fertilizers, growing stimulators and different systems of plant protection, management of yield volume on accumulation of malic acid in must of different grape varieties. It is presented that grass growing in every row-spacing and increasing of bush load led to increase of malic acid concentration in must and wine material on 0.1-0.6 g/dm3 . It is established that grape plant processing with anti-stressant Vapor Guard, which was used for prevention of berry withering, contributed with increasing of malic acid concentration in must of Chardonnay variety and decreasing of it in must of Cabernet Savignon variety. Application of the biological crop protection products on vineyards led to declining of malic acid concentration in must. It is presented that growth regulators and mineral fertilizers have different influence on the malic acid concentration depending on the dosage. The obtained data indicate the different responsiveness of the grape plant of various varieties to the agricultural practices used in the grape-growing farms of the Krasnodar region.

How to cite
Yakimenko E., Ageeva N., Chemisova L. THE INFLUENCE OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES OF GROWING GRAPES ON CONCENTRATION OF MALIC ACID IN GRAPE MUST [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 292–303. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/22.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-292-303 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
472 Кб
9 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 663.258
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-304-312
Keywords: GRAPE DIETARY FIBERS, NATAMYCIN, WINE, SORBENT

Annotation

The influence of grape dietary fibers on decontamination of natamycin in wine has been studied. Grape dietary fibers obtained from sweet pomace of Chardonnay grapes and fermented grapes Krasnostop Anapskiy, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlo were used for the studies. The mass fraction of fiber in the presented fiber samples ranged from 57.2 2.9 (Cabernet Sauvignon) to 65.3 3.3 % (Chardonnay), the electrokinetic potential from minus 26 3 (Chardonnay) to minus 49 5 mV (Krasnostop Anapskiy). Studies were carried out on a model mixture of dry white wine with 10 mg/dm3 of introduced natamycin. Influence of time of contact of wine with fibers and their amount on sorption of natamycin was established. It was revealed that the maximum sorption of natamycin occurs when in contact with fibers during the first 2 hours, so further maintenance of them is impractical. The addition of the fibers to the wine in an amount of 3.0 g/dm3 resulted in the removal of natamycin from 42 to 68 %. Fibers obtained from white Chardonnay grape pomace contributed to less sorption of natamycin, and from red pom-ace of Krasnostop Anapskiy grape variety more, which correlates with values of electrokinetic potential on the surface of the fibers. It is assumed that for the complete decontamination of natamycin it is necessary to use combined treatments with other sorbents having a negative charge of active centers on the surface.

How to cite
Abakumova A., Tikhonova N., Ageeva N., Antonenko M. STUDY OF EFFECTS OF GRAPE DIETARY FIBERS ON NATAMYCIN SORPTION IN WINE [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 304–312. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/23.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-304-312 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
666 Кб
13 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 663.253.3
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-313-325
Keywords: TECHNOLOGY, WINE, ANTHOCYANS, ANALYSIS, MACERATION

Annotation

Coloring substances of red grape wines anthocyanins are represented mainly by mono and diglycosides, pyran and acylated forms. The qualitative and quantitative content of anthocyanins in red wines is determined by a number of factors, the main of which is the grape variety. Processing technology can also influence the anthocyanin composition. Purpose of the work: to study the content of anthocyanins, pyranos and acylated forms in dry wine from Cabernet-Sauvignon variety grown of Krasnodar region, depending on the technological methods of grape processing. Research methods: high performance liquid chromatography, spectrophotometry, sensory analysis. Peaks were identified using standard samples of malvidin mono glucoside (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany), as well as HPLC-MS. The objects of research are dry wines produced in industrial conditions from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety grown in the Krasnodar region. The obtained results showed that the conditions and their modification in the production of red wine have a significant effect on the concentration of anthocyanins. The highest concentration of malvidin monoglucoside equal to 142.1 mg/dm3 was found in the samples during cryomaceration with holding the pulp at temperatures from +2 to +4 ºC for 10 days. The average content of malvidin monoglucoside for six variants of the experiment was 115 mg/dm3 . It was found that carbon dioxide maceration for a month and cryomaceration to the greatest extent contribute to the formation of acylated forms of anthocyanins in dry wine from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety. The production of wine with the infusion of the pulp in a CO2 environment for 2 days followed by fermentation on the pulp leads to an increase in the content of anthocyanin pyranoforms.

How to cite
Drob A., Staroverov S., Vasiyarov G., Titova E., Prakh A. INFLUENCE OF GRAPE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY ON THE CONTENT OF ANTHOCYANES IN RED WINE [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 313–325. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/24.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-313-325 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
753 Кб
16 с.
Date posted: 17.09.2021
UDC: 663.252.4: 576.343
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-326-341
Keywords: YEAST, SACCHAROMYCES, NON-SACCHAROMYCES, FERMENTATION, MORPHOTYPE, ELECTIVE TEST, PCR ANALYSIS, RESTRICTION ANALYSIS

Annotation

The modern wine industry for the production of wines uses imported cultures of active dry yeast, which often require adaptation to local production conditions. According to numerous data, the best wines can be produced only with the use of local yeast strains, adapted to the conditions of a particular locality and the chemical composition of berries, in particular, the acidity of the juice, the pH value, in connection with which the fermentation of the must proceeds more actively, and the resulting product has a higher quality. At the moment, there are a number of examples of successful implementation of projects to search for promising commercial strains of wine yeast among wild populations to obtain terroir-type wines with high taste characteristics. The work presents a morphological and cultural assessment of yeast strains isolated on 17 grape varieties at 6 points of selection (AF Yuzhnaya, farms, private farmstead) of Krasnodar region. A total of 510 yeast monocultures were isolated. An elective test and ITS analysis of some of the strains were carried out. According to the morphological assessment of yeast isolates, the cells of the Saccharomyces yeast were round, oval, or oval-shaped. The cells of the yeast of non-saccharomyces were elliptical, lemon-shaped, rod-shaped. It was found that the proportion of saccharomycetes varied depending on the grape variety and the place of its growth. Samples in which Saccharomyces were not found were identified. Restriction analysis of yeast isolates of the genus Saccharomyces was carried out for 153 strains isolated in the village Tamanskiy, AF Yuzhnaya: Cabernet Sauvignon, Krasnostop Anapskiy, Pervenets Magaracha, Zweigelt; and in Novorossiysk, Usadba Semigorye: Sauvignon Blanc, Kristall, Cabernet Fran. It was found that all studied samples of the genus Saccharomyces belong to the species S. cerevisiae / S. paradoxus.

How to cite
Suprun I., Lobodina E., Ageeva N., Al-Nakib E. CREATION OF A COLLECTION OF AUTOCHTHONOUS STRAINS OF WINE YEAST [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 326–341. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/25.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-326-341 (request date: 02.12.2022).
pdf
500 Кб
12 с.
Date posted: 24.09.2021
DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-342-353
Keywords: AMINO ACIDS, DRY RED WINES, YEAST STRAINS, CLIMATIC PARAMETERS

Annotation

The results of studying the qualitative composition and quantitative content of amino acids in red table wines made from Cabernet-Sauvignon grape variety using S. cerevisiae Y-4270 and Derbentskaya-19 strains are presented. It was found that the concentration of amino acids in wine samples was influenced by the individual characteristics of the yeast strains applicated in the preparation process, and certain climatic parameters in the region, which are different in 2019 and 2020 the amount of annual precipitation and the insolation intensity. In all variants of wine, there was a significant variation in both the sum and the concentrations of individual amino acids. The highest content of free amino acids was found in the 2020 yield sample prepared using the D-19 strain. It was found that proline prevails in all variants; as a percentage of the total amount of amino acids, its content in all variants is approximately the same, however, in mg/dm3 , these indicators are several times higher in the samples of 2020. In the wine obtained using the new strain of S. cerevisiae Y-4270, the concentration of proline is 2 times less than in the second variant (S. cerevisiae D-19), which affected its organoleptic assessment. As a result of a comparative analysis, it was shown that the total content of essential amino acids in the studied wines did not exceed the level of 77.31 mg/dm3 . Formed during fermentation mainly from amino acids, substances that enhance the fullness of the aroma, influenced the quality of wine materials. Obviously, the optimal concentration of free amino acids in the samples studied by us contributed to the formation of high organoleptic characteristics of dry red wines.

How to cite
Islammagomedova E., Kotenko S., Shelud'ko O., Mitrofanova E., Khalilova E., Abakarova A., Aliverdieva D. INFLUENCE OF S. CEREVISIAE YEAST STRAINS AND CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF RED TABLE WINE [Electronic resource] // Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia. 2021. № 71(5). pp. 342–353. URL: http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/21/05/26.pdf. DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2021-5-71-342-353 (request date: 02.12.2022).